Items tagged with: with
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19738537
Posted by charlieirish (karma: 5033)
Post stats: Points: 98 - Comments: 111 - 2019-04-24T14:17:20Z
#HackerNews #depression #like #listening #music #people #sad #why #with
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19735530
Posted by Impossible (karma: 7282)
Post stats: Points: 93 - Comments: 57 - 2019-04-24T04:22:16Z
#HackerNews #bros #commodore #dmca #fan #hit #mario #port #super #with
HackerNewsBot debug: Calculated post rank: 81 - Loop: 253 - Rank min: 80 - Author rank: 58
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19719380
Posted by sahaskatta (karma: 891)
Post stats: Points: 402 - Comments: 90 - 2019-04-22T14:55:04Z
#HackerNews #55m #cloning #company #funding #startup #with
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19698598
Posted by chwolfe (karma: 3462)
Post stats: Points: 158 - Comments: 41 - 2019-04-19T11:24:38Z
#HackerNews #combinators #learning #parser #rust #with
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19698003
Posted by superwayne (karma: 105)
Post stats: Points: 160 - Comments: 78 - 2019-04-19T08:49:02Z
#HackerNews #anonymity #austrian #eliminate #government #internet #penalties #seeks #severe #with
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19691055
Posted by Digit-Al (karma: 998)
Post stats: Points: 147 - Comments: 100 - 2019-04-18T14:02:11Z
#HackerNews #and #how #kids #other #peoples #the #tictoctrack #track #watch #with #your
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19688491
Posted by jonbaer (karma: 44264)
Post stats: Points: 155 - Comments: 11 - 2019-04-18T03:29:50Z
#HackerNews #advanced #nlp #spacy #with
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19687398
Posted by bookofjoe (karma: 6378)
Post stats: Points: 198 - Comments: 55 - 2019-04-17T23:42:56Z
#HackerNews #27740 #468 #among #found #identical #packs #skittles #total #with
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19685431
Posted by smsm42 (karma: 9032)
Post stats: Points: 134 - Comments: 111 - 2019-04-17T19:01:34Z
#HackerNews #anything #are #but #cant #facebook #fed #getting #shareholders #with #zuckerberg
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19682451
Posted by fanf2 (karma: 14052)
Post stats: Points: 149 - Comments: 74 - 2019-04-17T13:43:04Z
#HackerNews #checklist #deaths #drop #help #post-surgical #scotland #the #third #with
HackerNewsBot debug: Calculated post rank: 124 - Loop: 95 - Rank min: 100 - Author rank: 62
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19679890
Posted by bemmu (karma: 12838)
Post stats: Points: 160 - Comments: 45 - 2019-04-17T05:03:06Z
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Icons represent ideas in a simple, visual way. But we must use them carefully, and only where they help people. Users’ needs must come first, and we shouldn’t be afraid to challenge how people use…
Article word count: 857
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19661603
Posted by open-source-ux (karma: 3520)
Post stats: Points: 142 - Comments: 25 - 2019-04-14T20:45:22Z
#HackerNews #and #avoid #icons #needs #start #temptation #user #with
Icons represent ideas in a simple, visual way. But we must use them carefully, and only where they help people. Users’ needs must come first, and we shouldn’t be afraid to challenge how people use them.
Iʼm an interaction designer working in the team which redesigned the NHS website, previously NHS Choices. Over the years the site had developed lots of different navigation patterns and image styles to address the same user need.
Learning a new language
It’s tempting to throw a few icons on a page. But there are very few that everyone recognises. These include the icons for home, print, and search (the magnifying glass).
Expecting a user to understand a non-universal icon is like expecting them to learn a new language. And we know that most people don’t want to or can’t learn new languages easily.
That said, icons have their advantages. If they’re quickly recognised, they can be good targets for fingers and mouse cursors and they can overcome language barriers.
An icon for every occasion
Examples of the various icons on the NHS Choices website
There was a lack of consistency on the website – there were more than 30 icons, used as navigation, decoration and buttons. Our first task was to audit:
* what icons existed * what user needs they met * whether users understood them * whether they were essential * whether they were accessible
We also looked at the icons’ file formats, styles, sizes, colours and shapes. We also checked if there was any way of measuring their effectiveness with analytics.
We evaluated the 30 icons against two criteria:
* meeting specific user needs or * being essential to the page
and reduced the number to 15.
A set of icons for the NHS
We decided if we were to use icons, they needed to look like they were from the same family. The NHS brand is well established and based on trust, with its distinct blue colour and Frutiger font. We had to be careful about introducing new elements. Rather than using free icons, we decided to create our own.
We had proved through testing that buttons with rounded corners looked more ‘clicky’, so we styled our icons similarly. Our assumption was that icons with rounded corners would stand out among elements such as the NHS logo, which are quite angular and boxy.
Decisions and testing
NHS Choices used a ‘hamburger’ icon to toggle the menu (the main navigation) but, while hamburgers are used on a lot of websites and apps, they aren’t universally understood.
NHS Choices hamburger menu icon
On the new site, the menu link needed to sit in the new header alongside the NHS logo and search link. If we used the hamburger icon, we also needed a supporting label to be accessible (see Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.3.3). But then we lost the benefits of being simple and visually pleasing. The extra clutter would make it harder for users to scan.
‘Menu’ is a simple word and it didn’t fight with the NHS branding. We took it out to test with users.
We found that they had no problem navigating to the correct information via the menu and that their interpretation of the word ‘menu’ fits our model.
The new NHS website header
An example of our new navigation.
Exclamation or question
Exclamation marks and information icons had been used on the website’s health information pages to help users identify warnings and important content.
We took some new versions out to test with users in a shopping centre. To our astonishment, a number of users said that they wouldn’t read the information in the boxes. They likened them to advertising on news sites and overlooked them because of the ambiguity of the icon and the ‘READ ME!!!’ look.
Example of warning call out with exclamation icon
Example of inset text with an i icon
We also found the exclamation icon caused more harm than good. Users who read the boxes misunderstood their importance. Some thought on first glance that the information was more important than emergency ‘call 999’ messaging, which it wasn’t.
So, we replaced the exclamation with the word ‘important’.
Example of warning callout with the heading of important
When we retested, having ‘Important’ worked for warnings. Users read the information and understood its importance. We’ve since added context-specific, short headings which also test well with users.
Removing the information icon was also effective. The blue left border worked well in highlighting information without making it appear more important than it should be.
Example of inset text without icon
Not all icons are bad
Whilst we found words more effective on certain components, some icons work well.
Do and Don’t lists have proved to reassure users. The tick and cross icons support the positive and negative statements and highlight information when users scan a page.
Example of do and don’t list
We also found arrow icons highlight ‘action’ links for users wanting to find help. Theyʼre noticeable but, unlike buttons, users actually read the link.
Example of action link
A final set of NHS icons
After lots of lab testing and pop-up sessions we ended up with a set of 11 icons
Screenshot of the final set of 11 NHS icons
They’re a great start but itʼs important to remember that they were tested in specific contexts for specific needs. You should only add icons if research shows there’s something missing. Underpin everything with user research.
If you’re using the icons available in the NHS.UK frontend library in a health context, please feedback on how they’re working.
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A Swedish software engineer with close ties to Julian Assange was arrested while trying to leave Ecuador as authorities investigate the WikiLeaks founder’s alleged efforts to fight his eviction fro…
Article word count: 470
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19652642
Posted by synthc (karma: 230)
Post stats: Points: 263 - Comments: 67 - 2019-04-13T12:34:58Z
#HackerNews #arrested #assange #bini #developer #ecuador #ola #software #swedish #ties #with
Ola Bini Twitter
A Swedish software engineer with close ties to Julian Assange was arrested while trying to leave Ecuador as authorities investigate the WikiLeaks founder’s alleged efforts to fight his eviction from the country’s embassy in London by blackmailing the country’s president.
Ola Bini was arrested Thursday at Quito’s airport as he prepared to board a flight to Japan, a senior Ecuadorian official told The Associated Press, speaking on condition of anonymity.
A Swedish man by the same name describes himself on a blog as a software engineer working in Quito for the Center for Digital Autonomy, a group based in Ecuador and Spain focused on privacy, security and cryptography matters.
It makes no mention of any affiliation with WikiLeaks.On Twitter earlier Thursday, Bini called claims by the interior minister that Russian hackers and someone close to WikiLeaks were working inside Ecuador “very worrisome” news.
“This seems like a witch hunt to me,” Bini wrote.
The arrest came after police in London dragged Assange out of Ecuador’s embassy when his seven-year asylum was revoked.
The man had frequently traveled to Ecuador’s London embassy, Interior Minister María Paula Romo said, according to the BBC.
“He has been detained simply for investigation purposes,” she said.
“A person close to Wikileaks, who has been residing in Ecuador, was arrested this afternoon when he was preparing to travel to Japan,” Ecuador’s interior ministry tweeted late Thursday.
Ecuadorian officials believe Bini may be part of a blackmail ring assembled to pressure President Lenin Moreno and his government to allow Assange to remain in the embassy, according to the Times of London.
Ecuadorian diplomats told their counterparts in the UK that they were worried that Assange’s associates would try to seek revenge with cyberattacks and information leaks if he was handed over.
Britain agreed to assist Ecuador in shoring up its cybersecurity, the newspaper reported.
The Ecuadorian government accused WikiLeaks of being behind an anonymous online campaign implicating Moreno and his family in alleged corruption.
The leaked materials — dubbed the “INA Papers” — also contained private photographs of Moreno and his family.
Moreno, 66, said that Assange had no right to “hack private accounts and phones” without directly accusing him.
Bini’s friends described him as a soft-spoken geek who is being unfairly accused of plotting to destabilize the Ecuadorian government.
Vijay Prashad, who runs a Marxist publishing house based in India, considers himself a close pal.
Bini is “the last person who would ever be involved in an attempt overthrow a government,” he said, adding that he last saw Bini a few months ago in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Martin Fowler, a US-based computer programmer, tweeted: “I’m very concerned to hear that [he]has been arrested. He is a strong advocate and developer supporting privacy and has not been able to speak to any lawyers.”
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The privacy crisis Apple and Google need to fix—now
Article word count: 1113
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19653771
Posted by tumblen (karma: 564)
Post stats: Points: 128 - Comments: 57 - 2019-04-13T16:02:40Z
#HackerNews #apps #are #filled #smartphone #trackers #with
Go to the profile of Owen Williams
Credit: Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
Most of us understand by now that we’re being followed across the web. But how much do we know about how the smartphone apps we use track our every move? Thanks to tiny pieces of code that millions of developers use to make their lives easier, an array of companies gets free access to data they can employ to understand your habits. The process is invisible, and it’s worse news for you than you might think.
When we browse the web through Google Chrome, for example, a dizzying array of companies follow us. Such is the Wild West of our modern web, but you still remain in control of which sites you visit and which social networks you log into.
The shift to native apps changes this equation, however. Suddenly you’re no longer in full control of what’s loaded, nor of who is tracking you, and you must trust app developers to do the right thing.
All of this should make you skeptical of marketing like Apple’s recent “privacy matters” campaign.
On mobile, tracking is generally performed through the use of a “software development kit” or SDK—a set of tools that helps app developers get something done faster. Many SDKs help developers debug their code or hook into useful services, but others help advertisers and marketing companies peer into your private life. Take the iHeartRadio app for example: Last fall, Medium reported that it contained code from Cuebiq’s SDK, which would permit user data to be sold for the purposes of ad tracking.
All of this should make you skeptical of marketing like Apple’s recent “privacy matters” campaign. While the company offers tools within Safari to block trackers on the web, it doesn’t offer any control over trackers embedded in apps that are distributed through the iOS App Store. Most people use the Google Chrome browser anyway, and it has even fewer privacy protections baked in. (Apple does ask developers to “respect user preferences for how data is used,” but good luck with that.)
SDKs present a solution to Apple’s pesky tracking restriction for advertisers. They can connect who you are between apps, provided the developer of each app uses the same SDK and the advertiser is able to use signals to figure out who you are. If we look at the top 200 apps on the iOS App Store, it’s interesting to see how broad the reach of most SDKs actually is.
The top 10 most commonly used SDK libraries in the top iOS apps, as reported by analytics firm Mighty Signal, are largely provided by Facebook (three out of 10) and Google (four out of 10). Google’s AdMob tools, for example, helps developers show advertising and track their users, and it’s integrated into 78% of the top apps on iOS—everything from the Holy Bible to LinkedIn. Facebook’s “Core Kit,” which provides access to the social platform’s features, is integrated into 61% of top apps. The list goes on.
Both of these SDKs allow Facebook and Google to track users beyond their desktop web browsers and automatically collect information like when you installed the app, each time you opened it, and what you purchased.
Tracking in SDKs is clearly part of the modern App Store ecosystem, and it goes far beyond the big corporate names. There are a dizzying array of companies you’ve never heard of invisibly tracking your habits in apps you use every day. Networks like Vungle, Apps Flyer, and Applovin all call themselves “advertising and analytics” platforms. They help developers monetize their apps, and all of them track data to sell to other partners behind the scenes as well.
This often overflows into our daily lives in weird ways. The technology podcast Reply All recently dug into mysterious automated robocalls, which were somehow matching the area code of producer Damiano Marchetti, even adjusting to different locations as he traveled. How could such robocallers know where you physically are?
After digging into all of Damiano’s apps, Reply All made a discovery: He had downloaded a game called Mobile Legends: Bang Bang, which reported the phone’s location and IMEI (a unique identifier) to a bunch of analytics companies, which then sold that data, eventually leading to robocallers purchasing it.
The world of SDKs is intentionally obfuscated from view in the same way a magician wishes their most impressive tricks to remain secret.
The Wall Street Journal recently wrote about data collection on millions of other apps, such as those intended for menstrual cycle and body weight tracking. Those apps were found to sell this data to Facebook. Many people assume that Facebook is monitoring their microphones, but the reality is that they don’t need to: They can just collect data from the apps you’re using all day long.
In the past, Apple has moved to make it more difficult to identify you by blocking access to unique identifiers and your phone number, but it’s still trivial to correlate an identity via your IP address, the name of a Wi-Fi network, or just matching together the bread crumbs of data they grab about you. Android allows even broader access to identifiers—not surprising, given that it’s built by a company that relies on advertising to make money.
The world of SDKs and the companies tracking with them is intentionally obfuscated from view in the same way a magician wishes their most impressive tricks to remain secret. If you knew that the game you love was the one ratting out your habits, you’d probably consider uninstalling it.
There’s frustratingly little we can do to combat SDK tracking without intervention from Apple and Google. There are nuclear methods that can help protect you, such as installing a network-wide ad-blocker on your home Wi-Fi, which blocks the requests at the source—but of course that only works within the confines of your home. On the go, some VPN providers are able to block advertising, but with the same limitations: You must stay connected to the VPN at all times to block them, which simply isn’t realistic.
What we really need is change from the top. Apple and Google should provide operating system controls that show the parties harvesting data inside the apps on our devices or should require third parties to reveal this information. A good example of this in practice can be found in the Guardian app, which allows users to disable tracking on a per-SDK basis in its settings. Requiring this should be standard for all developers.
Ultimately, the gatekeepers of mobile app stores have a responsibility to give us more control. Otherwise, the next big privacy scandal will be the digital equivalent of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: All our information out there, under the surface, helping companies build a picture of who we are—without us ever seeing it.
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PreludeI built the first version of Slimvoice on Angular 1 with a Node.js backend and MongoDB in 2014 (those were all the rage back then). In 2015 I decided to completely revamp the UI and redesigned…
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19632817
Posted by dbnotabb (karma: 48)
Post stats: Points: 116 - Comments: 56 - 2019-04-11T10:31:38Z
LearnFor EmployersGet Started
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Posted by Nicolas Lidzborski, Senior Staff Software Engineer, Google Cloud and Nicolas Kardas, Senior Product Manager, Google Cloud We’re...
Article word count: 376
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19628182
Posted by edmorley (karma: 1196)
Post stats: Points: 118 - Comments: 72 - 2019-04-10T19:53:06Z
#HackerNews #email #making #more #mta-sts #secure #standard #with
Posted by Nicolas Lidzborski, Senior Staff Software Engineer, Google Cloud and Nicolas Kardas, Senior Product Manager, Google Cloud
We’re excited to announce that Gmail will become the first major email provider to follow the new SMTP MTA Strict Transport Security (MTA-STS) RFC 8461 and SMTP TLS Reporting RFC 8460 internet standards. Those new email security standards are the result of three years of collaboration within IETF, with contributions from Google and other large email providers.
SMTP alone is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks
Like all mail providers, Gmail uses Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send and receive mail messages. SMTP alone only provides best-effort security with opportunistic encryption, and many SMTP servers do not prevent certain types of malicious attacks intercepting email traffic in transit.
SMTP is therefore vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks. Man-in-the-middle is an attack where communication between two servers is intercepted and possibly changed without detection. Real attacks and prevention were highlighted in our research published in November 2015. MTA-STS will help prevent these types of attacks.
MTA-STS uses encryption and authentication to reduce vulnerabilities
A MTA-STS policy for your domain means that you request external mail servers sending messages to your domain to verify the SMTP connection is authenticated with a valid public certificate and encrypted with TLS 1.2 or higher. This can be combined with TLS reporting, that means your domain can request daily reports from external mail servers with information about the success or failure of emails sent to your domain according to MTA-STS policy.
Gmail is starting MTA-STS adherence. We hope others will follow
Gmail the first major provider to follow the new standard, initially launching in Beta on April 10th 2019. This means Gmail will honor MTA-STS and TLS reporting policies configured when sending emails to domains that have defined these policies. We hope many other email providers will soon adopt these new standards that make email communications more secure.
Email domain administrators should set up DNS records and web server endpoint to configure MTA-STS and TLS reporting policies for incoming emails. Use our Help Center to find out how to set up an MTA-STS policy with your DNS server. G Suite admins can use the G Suite Updates blog to see what MTA-STS means for G Suite domains.
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‘The Problem with…’ series covers controversial topics related to efforts to improve healthcare quality, including widely recommended but deceptively difficult strategies for improvement and pervasive…
Article word count: 18
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19625754
Posted by zdw (karma: 34267)
Post stats: Points: 133 - Comments: 78 - 2019-04-10T15:39:31Z
#HackerNews #2016 #problem #the #whys #with
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"Video visitation" services cost as much as 50 cents per minute.
Article word count: 551
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19606871
Posted by rbanffy (karma: 78903)
Post stats: Points: 135 - Comments: 86 - 2019-04-08T16:51:46Z
#HackerNews #awful #chat #in-person #jails #more #products #replace #video #visits #with
Prison inmates in orange jumpsuits use video-visitation kiosks.
Enlarge / Kiosks from GTL, a leading video-visitation provider.
After April 15, inmates at the Adult Detention Center in Lowndes County, Mississippi will no longer be allowed to visit with family members face to face. Newton County, Missouri, implemented an in-person visitor ban last month. The Allen County Jail in Indiana phased out in-person visits earlier this year.
All three changes are part of a nationwide trend toward "video visitation" services. Instead of seeing their loved ones face to face, inmates are increasingly limited to talking to them through video terminals. Most jails give family members a choice between using video terminals at the jail—which are free—or paying fees to make calls from home using a PC or mobile device.
Even some advocates of the change admit that it has downsides for inmates and their families. Ryan Rickert, jail administrator at the Lowndes County Adult Detention Center, acknowledged to The Commercial Dispatch that inmates were disappointed they wouldnʼt get to see family members anymore. Advocates of this approach point to an upside for families: they can now make video calls to loved ones from home instead of having to physically travel to the jail.
These services are ludicrously expensive. Video calls cost 40¢ per minute in Newton County, 50¢ per minute in Lowndes County, and $10 per call in Allen County. Outside of prison, of course, video calls on Skype or FaceTime are free.
These "visitation" services are also noticeably inferior to mainstream video calling apps. When I was working on a story about the video visitation trend last year, I wanted to try the technology out for myself. So I called inmate Justin Harker at the Knox County Jail in Tennessee. As I wrote at the time, the video was grainy and jerky, periodically freezing up altogether. The call cost me 19¢ per minute.
Harker told me that on-site calls are somewhat better quality. But he still said that these video calls were no substitute for a face-to-face visit. "Itʼs not the same," he said.
So why are so many jails adopting them? A big motivator is money. In-person visits are labor intensive. Prison guards need to escort inmates to and from visitation rooms, supervise the visits, and in some cases pat down visitors for contraband. In contrast, video terminals can be installed inside each cell block, minimizing the need to move inmates around the jail.
Video-visitation systems also directly generate revenue for jails. The companies behind the video calling products typically install equipment inside jails at no cost to taxpayers, charge high fees to family members, and then pay a large share of those fees back to the jail.
Inmates in Newton Count, Missouri can also pay 10¢ per message for instant messaging, the Joplin Globe reports. Newton County gets a share of the proceeds.
Of course, jails could offer video calling without shutting down in-person visits. But the fact that jails get a share of the proceeds from these services creates a perverse incentive for them to end in-person visits. As long as in-person visits are available, many family members will take the time to drive to prison and see their loved one. But if only video visits are available on site, more family members will opt for the convenience and privacy they get by calling from home.
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Facebook routinely tracks users, non-users and logged-out users outside its platform through Facebook Business Tools. App developers share data with Facebook through the Facebook Software Development…
Article word count: 1124
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19595478
Posted by allwynpfr (karma: 61)
Post stats: Points: 110 - Comments: 24 - 2019-04-07T08:04:18Z
#HackerNews #2018 #android #apps #data #facebook #how #share #with
A video presentation of the finding of this report can be found here, as presented at 35th Chaos Computer Congress (35C3)
Previous research has shown how 42.55 percent of free apps on the Google Play store could share data with Facebook, making Facebook the second most prevalent third-party tracker after Google’s parent company Alphabet. In this report, Privacy International illustrates what this data sharing looks like in practice, particularly for people who do not have a Facebook account.
This question of whether Facebook gathers information about users who are not signed in or do not have an account was raised in the aftermath of the Cambridge Analytica scandal by lawmakers in hearings in the United States and in Europe. Discussions, as well as previous fines by Data Protection Authorities about the tracking of non-users, however, often focus on the tracking that happens on websites. Much less is known about the data that the company receives from apps. For these reasons, in this report we raise questions about transparency and use of app data that we consider timely and important.
Facebook routinely tracks users, non-users and logged-out users outside its platform through Facebook Business Tools. App developers share data with Facebook through the Facebook Software Development Kit (SDK), a set of software development tools that help developers build apps for a specific operating system. Using the free and open source software tool called "mitmproxy", an interactive HTTPS proxy, Privacy International has analyzed the data that 34 apps on Android, each with an install base from 10 to 500 million, transmit to Facebook through the Facebook SDK.
All apps were tested between August and December 2018, with the last re-test happening between 3 and 11 of December 2018. The full documentation, including the exact date each app was tested, can be found at https://privacyinternational.org/appdata.
Facebook places the sole responsibility on app developers to ensure that they have the lawful right to collect, use and share people’s data before providing Facebook with any data. However, the default implementation of the Facebook SDK is designed to automatically transmit event data to Facebook.
Since May 25, 2018 – the day that the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) entered into force - developers have been filing bug reports on Facebook’s developer platform, raising concerns that the Facebook SDK automatically shares data before apps are able to ask users to agree or consent. On June 28, 2018, Facebook released a voluntary feature that should allow developers to delay collecting automatically logged events until after they acquire user consent. The feature was launched 35 days after GDPR took effect and only works on the SDK version 4.34 and later.
In response to this report, Facebook has stated in an email to Privacy International on 28 December 2018: “Prior to our introduction of the “delay” option, developers had the ability to disable transmission of automatic event logging data, except for a signal that the SDK had been initialized. Following the June change to our SDK, we also removed the signal that the SDK was initialized for developers that disabled automatic event logging.” (emphasis added).
This “signal” is the data that we observe in our findings. We assume that prior to the release of this voluntary feature, many apps that use Facebook SDK in the Android ecosystem were therefore not able to prevent or delay the SDK from automatically collecting and sharing that the SDK has been initialized. Such data communicates to Facebook that a user uses a particular app, when they are using it and for how long.
Without any further transparency from Facebook, it is impossible to know for certain, how the data that we have described in this report is being used. This is particularity the case since Facebook has been less than transparent about the ways in which it uses data of non-Facebook users in the past.
Our findings also raise a number of legal questions. As this research was conducted in the UK we have focused on the relevant EU framework, namely EU data protection (“GDPR”) and ePrivacy law (the ePrivacy Directive 2002/58/EC, as implemented by Member State laws) as well as Competition Law. An underlying theme is the responsibility of the various actors involved, including Facebook.
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Count Casimir Pulaski is revered as the father of American cavalry. He came to America of his own volition to fight in the War of Independence. One of the Revolution’s great heroes, he was a very…
Article word count: 1813
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19592911
Posted by uxhacker (karma: 917)
Post stats: Points: 139 - Comments: 39 - 2019-04-06T20:43:11Z
#HackerNews #been #female #fought #general #have #may #polish #washington #who #with
April 5, 2019
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, 1777. At the end of a daylong battle, George Washington’s right flankSomewhere on the battlefield is Private Johan Wilhelm Seckel, 40, the first of his family born in America — and ancestor to ASU Now reporter Scott Seckel — serving with the Germantown Battalion Continental Troops in Capt. George Hubleyʼs Company. has completely collapsed. British troops are closing in.
A dashing Polish cavalry officer reports to Washington’s bodyguard that they are in danger of being surrounded. Washington orders Casimir Pulaski to gather as many men as he can. Count Pulaski discovers an escape route past the British advance, then wheels and charges enemy lines. The redcoats are astounded to be attacked by what they thought was a fleeing rabble. Washington escapes.
Pulaski is revered as the father of American cavalry. He came to America of his own volition to fight in the War of Independence. One of the Revolution’s great heroes, he was a loner. A very private person, he was extremely driven and difficult with people. (It’s one reason Washington simply ended up giving Pulaski his own legion, most of whom were Europeans.) Both superiors and subordinates considered him imperious. He was brave in battle to the point of recklessness. Detractors called him a loose cannon. Short and thin, pacing and speaking quickly, he lacked interest in women or drinking.
And he harbored a secret that lay unknown for more than 200 years, until an Arizona State University bioarchaeologist and a colleague discovered the truth.
Monday night a documentary unveiling the mystery airs on the Smithsonian Channel. But it doesn’t tell the whole story ...
In the late 1990s, Charles Merbs and his wife visited their daughter in Savannah, Georgia. A forensic anthropologist at Arizona State University’s now School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Merbs’ expertise lies in skeletal remains, especially reconstructing behavior from skeletons.
The family toured the historic city, including a visit to Casimir Pulaski’s monument. Merbs is Polish on his mother’s side. His mother always told him they were related to the Pulaskis and should be proud of that. (“It’s been impossible to prove,” he said. “The records just aren’t there.”)
Pulaski was mortally wounded during the Battle of Savannah. (Like most Revolutionary War battles, the American side lost.) He was hit in the groin by grapeshot. Grapeshot was pingpong-size metal balls collected in a canvas bag and fired from a cannon. It acted like shotgun pellets and was used as an antipersonnel round.
He was taken aboard an American ship, where he died a few days later.
“Then the story gets murky as to what happens to his body,” Merbs, now retired, said. “One story is that he was buried at sea on the way back to Charleston. The other story is that in the dead of night his body was taken ashore and buried by torchlight on a plantation. It was done secretly. The plantation owners knew about it and maintained the burial.”
In 1854, it was decided to build a monument to Pulaski. The bones were exhumed and reburied beneath the monument in a metal box.
A week after their visit to Savannah, Merbs’ daughter called. The monument was being taken down. Iron spacers between the stones were rusting. The whole thing was in danger of collapsing.
Merbs tracked down the physical anthropologist working with the bones — Karen Burns, of the University of Georgia — and offered to help. She accepted. “That’s how I got involved,” he said.
Before Merbs was allowed to examine the remains, however, he had to sign a document swearing him to secrecy.
“Basically I couldn’t say anything about what I found until the final report came out,” he said. “Dr. Burns said to me before I went in, ‘Go in and don’t come out screaming.’ She said study it very carefully and thoroughly and then let’s sit down and discuss it. I went in and immediately saw what she was talking about.
“The skeleton is about as female as can be.”
The next — and obvious — question: Was it Pulaski or someone else who had been stuck in the tomb because a skeleton was needed?
Everything seemed to match. The stature, age and general body build were all correct for Pulaski. There’s one contemporary portrait of Pulaski painted from life. There’s a black smudge below his left eye. “On the skull there is a bone defect right exactly there,” Merbs said.
Pulaski injured his right hand in a battle in Russia. “Sure enough; the fourth and fifth metacarpals in the right hand had fractured and had healed rather poorly, exactly where they were supposed to be,” he said.
Merbs has done forensic work with the Maricopa County Medical Examiner’s Office, including working with the skeletons of equestrians. Riding a lot shows up in skeletons. Horse rider’s syndrome is a whole series of issues that affect bones, primarily in the pelvis.
“That skeleton definitely showed signs of horseback riding,” Merbs said, including a new one he added to the lexicon of horse rider’s syndrome: the skeleton’s shoulder showed signs of holding arms high, as would be done holding and pulling back on reins or raising a heavy saber. (Cavalrymen killed enemies by swinging their swords directly down on the crown of their heads. Ever notice the tall bearskin caps worn by the guards at Buckingham Palace? They were designed to protect from exactly that blow.)
The forehead showed an injury consistent with a wound from a blade, although Merbs couldn’t be sure.
ASU Charles Merbs examines grapeshot which killed Pulaski
Charles Merbs examines the grapeshot that killed Casimir Pulaski. Photo courtesy of Charles Merbs
“Everything matched, except for the sex,” he said. “The sex was as clearly female as anything could be.”
Something that could be reasonably suspected of a woman in her 30s would be evidence of childbirth. “There were no parturition scars on this pelvis,” Merbs said.
The next step was a positive DNA identification. When the skeleton was exhumed in the 1850s, most of its teeth were missing, except for a few molars.
“Those teeth had been taken out when the skeleton was excavated,” he said.
This was evidence of a macabre but common custom of the time. During the Napoleonic Wars, when millions died in massive clashes, tooth hunters scavenged battlefields. Dead soldiers’ teeth were in great demand for making dentures. (In 1814 an Englishman recorded a meeting with a tooth hunter. When asked how he obtained them, he replied, “Oh sir, only let there be a battle, and there’ll be no want of teeth. I’ll draw them as fast as the men are knocked down.”) After the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the market became so flooded they became known as Waterloo teeth. Because they came from healthy young men, they were advertised as such.
“It’s very likely around the time the people of Savannah were wearing Pulaski’s teeth,” Merbs said.
They had enough of Pulaski’s DNA to turn the investigation in that direction. But who could they compare it to? Burns and Merbs looked at Pulaski’s genealogy and found out he had two brothers and six sisters. Mitochondrial DNA is passed through women. Of the six sisters, only one had a child. Luckily it was a daughter. She had another daughter. Pulaski and his grandniece would share the same mitochondrial DNA.
Her grave was excavated and samples returned, but nothing usable turned up. “That was 20 years ago,” Merbs said.
Recently three young researchers, one of whom studied archaeology at ASU, decided to look into the mystery. DNA work had come quite a long way in 20 years. Something new might turn up. They got a lab to give them an analysis estimate, which turned out to be $18,000. They contacted the Smithsonian Institute, which funded the research last summer.
The results came back positive. The mitochondrial DNA was identical in both Pulaski and his grandniece.
“Now we know that the bones in the monument were indeed those of Pulaski, but we have the problem of the fact that they are female,” Merbs said. “Here’s the thing: if you go back and look at his life, what we know about it, there are interesting little clues along the way.”
Aristocratic Polish Catholic families in the 18th century traditionally held public baptisms in church.
“In his case it said he was suffering from some debilitatus, and they held off on the baptism and privately baptized him at home,” he said.
Suddenly, Pulaski’s personality traits — aloof, driven, private, brazen in battle — fell into line.
“We think the problem goes back to his birth and basically deciding whether he was a boy or a girl,” Merbs said.
Merbs’ oldest daughter is a professor at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. She put him in touch with a specialist in sex and gender issues.
“With scientists, sex and gender are two totally different things,” Merbs said. “Sex is biological, and gender is social and behavioral. Ordinarily the two go together, but you can have a conflict between the two. That’s what I think we were dealing with here.”
Merbs explained to the professor he thought they were dealing with a sex-gender problem. The professor took out a stack of photographs of bare babies and told him and his wife to put them in one of two piles — girls and boys — which they did.
“One hundred percent,” the professor said. “You are one hundred percent wrong. You were wrong on every single one.”
Merbs thinks the Pulaski family, faced with a similar situation, had to make a decision.
So Pulaski was raised as a man, in a military family. It was without question he would become an officer, and so he did.
“I don’t think, at any time in his life, did he think he was a woman,” Merbs said. “I think he just thought he was a man, and something was wrong. He had some kind of defect or something. Back in those days they just didn’t know.”
Did that perhaps play a part in Pulaski’s aggression on the battlefield?
“Oh, I think that’s a big part of it,” Merbs said. “I think his whole personality indicates he was driven, and I think that’s the reason why.”
Merbs kept his secret, until now.
“This was definitely not what the good folks of Savannah wanted us to find, and the whole thing became a political hot potato,” he said. “They wanted us to verify that the remains were indeed those of a male Pulaski, which would then be interred at Arlington.”
Without conclusive DNA evidence, it was considered that Burns and Merbsʼ observations were opinion, not fact. The bones were reburied next to the monument.
Burns died several years ago. Merbs has a small credit in the documentary. Both Merbs and Burns names appear in the Pulaski Exhibit in Savannah. Merbs’ contributions are clearly spelled out in an article about to be submitted to the Journal of Forensic Anthropology.
“America’s Hidden Stories: The General Was Female?” will air on the Smithsonian Channel at 8 and 11 p.m. Monday, April 8, and at 1 p.m. Tuesday, April 9.
Top image courtesy of the Library of Congress
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Posted by cunidev (karma: 129)
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#HackerNews #assistant #for #google #indonesia #linux-based #phones #sold #with
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SQL is the only ever successful, mainstream, and general-purpose 4GL (Fourth Generation Programming Language) and it is awesome! With modern cost based optim...
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Posted by truth_seeker (karma: 504)
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#HackerNews #2017 #algorithms #come #databases #dreamed #have #never #sql #video #with #youd
SQL is the only ever successful, mainstream, and general-purpose 4GL (Fourth Generation Programming Language) and it is awesome!
With modern cost based optimisation, relational databases like Oracle, SQL Server, PostgreSQL finally keep up to the promise of a powerful declarative programming model by adapting to ever changing productive data without performance penalties. Thousand-line-long, complex SQL statements can be run in far below a millisecond against billion-row strong tables if database developers know their ways around the SQL language - and the best news is: Itʼs not that hard!
In this talk, Iʼll show how the SQL database will constantly outperform any hand written data retrieval algorithm - or in other words - how SQL, being a logic language, is the best language for business logic.
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Posted by davvid (karma: 1535)
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#HackerNews #format-patch #git #problems #with
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Linux Journal's very first issue featured an interview between LJ's first Publisher, Robert Young (who went on to co-found Red Hat among other things), and Linus Torvalds (author of the Linux kernel).…
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Posted by axiomdata316 (karma: 3085)
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#HackerNews #interview #later #linus #torvalds #with #years
Linux Journalʼs very first issue featured an interview between LJʼs first Publisher, Robert Young (who went on to co-found Red Hat among other things), and Linus Torvalds (author of the Linux kernel). After 25 years, we thought itʼd be interesting to get the two of them together again. You can read that first interview from 1994 here.
Interview: Linus Torvalds and Robert Young
Robert Young: It is a great pleasure to have an excuse to reach out to you. How are you and your family? Your kids must be through college by now. Nancy and I and our three daughters are all doing well. Our eldest, Zoe, who was 11 when Marc and I started Red Hat, is expecting her second child—meaning Iʼm a grandparent.
Linus Torvalds: None of my kids are actually done with college yet, although Patricia (oldest) will graduate this May. And Celeste (youngest) is in her senior year of high school, so weʼll be empty-nesters in about six months.
All three are doing fine, and I suspect/hope it will be a few years until the grandparent thing happens.
Bob: When I first interviewed you back in 1994, did you think that youʼd be still maintaining this thing in 2019?
Linus: I think that by 1994 I had already become surprised that my latest project hadnʼt just been another "do something interesting until it does everything I needed, and then find something else to do" project. Sure, it was fairly early in the development, but it had already been something that I had spent a few years on by then, and had already become something with its own life.
So I guess what Iʼm trying to say is not that I necessarily expected to do it for another few decades, but that it had already passed the bump of becoming something fairly big in my life. Iʼve never really had a long-term plan for Linux, and I have taken things one day at a time rather than worry about something five or ten years down the line.
Bob: There is a famous old quote about the danger of achieving your dreams—your running joke back in the day when asked about your future goals for Linux was "world domination". Now that you and the broader Open Source/Free Software community have achieved that, whatʼs next?
Linus: Well, I stopped doing the "world domination" joke long ago, because it seemed to become less of a joke as time went on. But it always was a joke, and it wasnʼt why I (or any of the other developers) really did what we did anyway. It was always about just making better technology and having interesting challenges.
And none of that has really changed on a core level. All the details have changed—the hardware is very different, the problems we have are very different, and my role is very different. But the whole "make it better and have interesting challenges" is all the same.
For example, back in 1994, I was mostly a developer. Sure, I was the lead maintainer, but while I spent a lot of time merging patches, I was also mostly writing my own code. These days I seldom write much code, and the code I write is often pseudo-code or example patches that I send out in emails to the real developers. Iʼd hesitate to call myself a "manager", because I donʼt really do things like yearly reviews or budgets, etc. (thank God!), but I definitely am more of a technical lead person than an actual programmer, and thatʼs been true for the last many years.
So the truly big-picture thing hasnʼt changed, but my role and all the details obviously look very very different from 1994.
Bob: Where will you and this code base be in another quarter century?
Linus: Well, Iʼll be 75 by then, and I doubt Iʼll be involved day to day. But considering that Iʼve been doing this for almost 30 years, maybe Iʼd still be following the project.
And the good news is that we really do have a pretty solid developer base, and Iʼm not worried about "where will Linus be" kind of issues. Sure, people have been talking about how kernel developers are getting older for a long time now, but thatʼs not really because we wouldnʼt be getting any new people, itʼs literally because we still have a lot of people around that have been around for a long time, and still enjoy doing it.
I used to think that some radical new and exciting OS would come around and supplant Linux some day (hey, back in 1994 I probably still thought that maybe Hurd would do it!), but itʼs not just that weʼve been doing this for a long time and are still doing very well, Iʼve also come to realize that making a new operating system is just way harder than I ever thought. It really takes a lot of effort by a lot of people, and the strength of Linux—and open source in general, of course—is very much that you can build on top of the effort of all those other people.
So unless there is some absolutely enormous shift in the computing landscape, I think Linux will be doing quite well another quarter century from now. Not because of any particular detail of the code itself, but simply fundamentally, because of the development model and the problem space.
I may not be active at that point, and a lot of the code will have been updated and replaced, but I think the project will remain.
Bob: Have you and the kernel team been updating the kernel code to your satisfaction through the years? Is there any need or pressure to re-write any of the 25-year-old ever-expanding Linux code base? Perhaps in a more "modern" language than C?
Linus: Weʼve gone through many many big rewrites of most of the subsystems over the years—not all at once, of course—and many pieces of code end up being things that nobody really wants to modify any more (most often because they are drivers for ancient hardware that very few people really use, but that we still support). But one of the advantages of a big unified source base for the whole kernel has been that when we need to make some big change, we can do so. There may be a few out-of-tree drivers, etc., around (both source and binary), but weʼve always had a policy that if they are out of tree, they donʼt matter for development. So we can make radical changes when necessary.
As to C, nothing better has come around. Weʼve updated the kernel sources for new and improved features (the C language itself has changed during the years weʼve been doing this), and weʼve added various extensions on top of C for extra type-checking and runtime verification and hardening, etc., but on the whole, the language is recognizably the same except for small details.
And honestly, it doesnʼt look likely to change. The kind of languages people see under active development arenʼt for low-level system programming. They are to make it easier to create user applications with fancy UIs, etc. They explicitly donʼt want to do things a kernel needs, like low-level manual memory management.
I could imagine that weʼd have some "framework" language for generating drivers or similar, and we internally actually have our own simplified "language" just for doing configuration, and we do use a few other languages for the build process, so itʼs not like C is the only language we use. But itʼs the bulk of it by far, and itʼs what the "kernel proper" is written in.
Bob: Whatʼs your hardware instrument of choice? Is there a Stradivarius of Linux (or any) laptops out there? Or tablet or phone?
Linus: My main development machine is a very generic PC workstation. Itʼs a franken-machine with different parts cobbled together over the years. Itʼs nothing particularly special, and itʼs actually been two years since I made any big changes to it, so itʼs not even anything bleeding-edge. My main requirement at home is actually that it be basically entirely silent. Outside a couple fans, there are no moving parts (so no spinning disks anywhere), and the fans are not even running most of the time.
On the road (which is happily not that often), my main requirement is a good screen and being lightweight. My target weight is 1kg (with charger), and honestly, Iʼve not been able to hit that ideal target, but right now, the best compromise for me is the XPS13.
Bob: It seems Linux on the desktopʼs success was not on the PC desktop but on the device desktop via Android. What are your thoughts on this?
Linus: Well, the traditional PC is obviously no longer quite the dominant thing it used to be. Even when you have one (and even when itʼs still running Windows or OS X), lots of people mainly interact with it through a web browser and a couple random apps. Of course, then there are the "workstation" users, which is kind of the desktop I was personally always envisioning. And while still important, it doesnʼt seem to drive the market the way the PC did back when. Powerful desktop machines seem to be mostly about development or gaming, or media editing. The "casual" desktop seems to have become more of a browser thing, and quite often itʼs just a tablet or a phone.
Chrome seems to be doing fine in some of that area too, of course. But yes, in just numbers of people interacting daily with Linux, Android is obviously the huge bulk of it.
[Note from Bob: In the strict sense of "dominant", this is probably fair. But despite the recent fall in total numbers of PCs shipped in the last couple years, the cumulative growth in the PC market between 1994 and, say, 2014 is such that even in a slow PC market today, the world is still installing four or five times as many PCs every year compared to 1994.]
Bob: If you had to fix one thing about the networked world, what would it be?
Linus Torvalds (Image Courtesy of Peter Adams, The Faces of Open Source Project)
Linus: Nothing technical. But, I absolutely detest modern "social media"—Twitter, Facebook, Instagram. Itʼs a disease. It seems to encourage bad behavior.
I think part of it is something that email shares too, and that Iʼve said before: "On the internet, nobody can hear you being subtle". When youʼre not talking to somebody face to face, and you miss all the normal social cues, itʼs easy to miss humor and sarcasm, but itʼs also very easy to overlook the reaction of the recipient, so you get things like flame wars, etc., that might not happen as easily with face-to-face interaction.
But email still works. You still have to put in the effort to write it, and thereʼs generally some actual content (technical or otherwise). The whole "liking" and "sharing" model is just garbage. There is no effort and no quality control. In fact, itʼs all geared to the reverse of quality control, with lowest common denominator targets, and click-bait, and things designed to generate an emotional response, often one of moral outrage.
Add in anonymity, and itʼs just disgusting. When you donʼt even put your real name on your garbage (or the garbage you share or like), it really doesnʼt help.
Iʼm actually one of those people who thinks that anonymity is overrated. Some people confuse privacy and anonymity and think they go hand in hand, and that protecting privacy means that you need to protect anonymity. I think thatʼs wrong. Anonymity is important if youʼre a whistle-blower, but if you cannot prove your identity, your crazy rant on some social-media platform shouldnʼt be visible, and you shouldnʼt be able to share it or like it.
Oh well. Rant over. Iʼm not on any social media (I tried G+ for a while, because the people on it werenʼt the mindless usual stuff, but it obviously never went anywhere), but it still annoys me.
Bob: This issue of Linux Journal focuses on Kids and Linux. Is there any advice youʼd like to give to young programmers/computer science students?
Linus: Iʼm actually the worst person to ask. I knew I was interested in math and computers since an early age, and I was largely self-taught until university. And everything I did was fairly self-driven. So I donʼt understand the problems people face when they say "what should I do?" Itʼs not where I came from at all.
Bob: The very first time you and I met was at a Digital Equipment Company (DEC) tradeshow. It was on your very first trip to the US that Jon "maddog" Hall and DEC financed.
Linus: I think actually that was my second trip to the US. The first was, I believe, a trip for me to Provo, Utah, to talk with Novell about Linux (for a project inside Novell that was then to become Caldera).
But yes, the DECUS tradeshow (in New Orleans? Maybe I misremember) was certainly among my earliest trips to the US.
Bob: I asked how you were going to catch up with all the emails you missed by the time you returned to Helsinki. Your answer surprised me, and Iʼve been quoting you ever since. You simply said you would send the backlog of emails to /dev/null. I expressed shock and asked you, "but what if there were important emails in your inbox?" You shrugged and replied, "If it was important, the writer would just send it again." Possibly the most liberating piece of advice anyone had ever given me. Do you still follow that philosophy of email handling?
Linus: Itʼs still somewhat true, but at the same time, Iʼve also changed my workflow a lot so that travel wouldnʼt be as disruptive to my work as it used to be. So these days I often strive to have people not even notice when Iʼm on the road all that much. I will give people a heads-up if I expect to be without much internet connectivity for more than a day or two (which still happens in some places of the world—particularly if youʼre a scuba diver), but most of the time, I can do my work from anywhere in the world. And I try (and sometimes fail) to time my trips so that theyʼre not in the merge window for me, which is when I get the most pull requests.
So these days I keep all my email in the cloud, which makes it much easier to switch between machines, and it means that when I travel and use my laptop, itʼs not nearly as much of a pain as it used to be back in the days when I downloaded all my email to my local machine.
And itʼs not just about my email—the fact that almost all the kernel development ends up being distributed through git also means that itʼs much less of an issue what machine I am at, and synchronization is so much easier than it used to be back when I was working with patches coming in individually through email.
Still, my "if itʼs really important, people will re-send" belief stands. People know that Iʼm around pretty much 7/365, and if I donʼt react to a pull request in a couple days, it still means that it might have gotten lost in the chaos that is my email, and people send me a follow-up email to ping me about it.
But itʼs actually much less common than it used to be. Back in 1994, I wasnʼt all that overworked, and being gone a week wasnʼt a big deal, but it got progressively worse during the next few years, to the point where our old email-and-patches-based workflow really meant that I would sometimes have to skip patches because I didnʼt have the time for them, knowing that people would re-send.
Those times are all happily long gone. BitKeeper made a big difference for me, even if not all maintainers liked it (or used it). And now git means that I donʼt get thousands of patches by email any more, and my inbox doesnʼt look as bad as it used to be. So itʼs easier to stay on top of it.
By the way, perhaps even more important than the "If it was important the writer would just send it again" rule is another rule Iʼve had for the longest time: if I donʼt have to reply, I donʼt. If I get a piece of email and my reaction is that somebody else could have handled it, I will just ignore it. Some busy email people have an automatic reply saying "sorry, Iʼll try to get to your email eventually". Me, I just ignore anything where I feel it doesnʼt absolutely concern me. I do that simply because I feel like I canʼt afford to encourage people to email me more.
So I get a lot of email, but I donʼt actually answer most of it at all. In a very real sense, much of my job is to be on top of things and know whatʼs going on. So I see a lot of emails, but I donʼt usually write a lot.
Bob: At a talk at the Washington DC Linux user group meeting back in May 1995, that Don Becker organized, you stopped halfway through and asked the audience if anyone knew the score of the Finland-Sweden menʼs world championship hockey game. As the token Canadian in the room, I was able to assure you that Finland won that game. On that topic: Finlandʼs recent win of the World Junior Championship must have been fun for you. Or were you cheering for the US?
Linus: Heh. Hockey may be the Finnish national sport (and playing against Sweden makes it more personal—I speak Swedish as my mother language, but Iʼm Finnish when it comes to nationality), but Iʼm not a huge sports fan. And moving to the US didnʼt mean that I picked up baseball and football, it just meant that ice hockey lost that "people around me cared" part too.
Bob: Many of us admire your willingness to call a spade a spade in public debates on Linux technology decisions. Others, um, dislike your forthright style of arguing. Do you think you are becoming more or less diplomatic as time has goes on?
Linus: If anything, I think I have become quieter. I wouldnʼt say "more diplomatic", but perhaps more self-aware, and Iʼm trying to be less forceful.
Part of it is that people read me a different way from how they used to. It used to be a more free-wheeling environment, and we were a group of geeks having fun and playing around. Itʼs not quite the same environment any more. Itʼs not as personal, for one thing—we have thousands of people involved with development now, and thatʼs just counting actual people sending patches, not all the people working around it.
And part of the whole "read me in a different way" is that people take me seriously in a way they didnʼt do back in 1994. And thatʼs absolutely not some kind of complaint about how I wasnʼt taken seriously back then—quite the reverse. Itʼs more me grumbling that people take me much too seriously now, and I canʼt say silly stupid cr*p any more.
So Iʼll still call out people (and particularly companies) for doing dumb things, but now I have to do it knowing that itʼs news, and me giving some company the finger will be remembered for a decade afterwards. Whether deserved or not, it might not be worth it.
Bob: Anything else you want to comment on, either publicly or otherwise?
Linus: Iʼve never had some "message" that I wanted to spread, so ...
About Robert Young and What Heʼs Been Up to in the Past 25 Years
Graduating from the University of Toronto in 1976 after studying history, Young took a job selling typewriters. In 1978, he founded his first company and then spent 15 years in Canada at the helm of two computer-leasing companies. He sold the second of these to a larger firm who moved him to Connecticut in 1992 to grow their small US subsidiary. Shortly after, the new parent company ran into financial difficulties, otherwise known as bankruptcy, and Young found himself working out of his wifeʼs sewing closet.
Robert Young, LJʼs First Publisher
Although that event led directly to, in 1993, co-founding Red Hat (NYSE: RHT) with Marc Ewing, a young North Carolina-based software engineer. Both of them had fallen in love with free software, now known as open source—Ewing because he could innovate with software that came with source code and a license that allowed him to innovate, and Young because he could see how technology customers could be better served with open technology than the closed proprietary alternatives the industry offered at the time. Serving as CEO from founding through Red Hatʼs IPO in 1999, he then moved to the role of Chairman, and the brilliant Matthew Szulik took over as CEO, building the early Red Hat into a great business. Red Hat is now a member of the S&P 500 Index of the largest US public companies.
In 2000, Young and Ewing co-founded the Center for Public Domain, a non-profit foundation created to bolster healthy conversation of intellectual property, patent and copyright law, and the management of the public domain for the common good. Grant recipients included the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Creative Commons.
In 2003, Young purchased the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League, and he currently serves as the leagueʼs Vice-Chairman.
Working with a talented team led by Gart Davis, he helped launch Lulu.com in 2004 as the first online self-publishing services to use print-on-demand technology to enable a new generation of authors to bring their works directly to market, avoiding the delays, expense and limited profitability of publishing through traditional channels. Under the direction of Kathy Hensgen, Lulu continues to be a leading innovator helping authors bring their works to market.
In 2012 Young invested in PrecisionHawk, a small drone company led by Ernie Earon and Christopher Dean. PrecisionHawk, based in Raleigh, has become one of the leading drone technology companies in the US. He continues to serve as Chairman, with CEO Michael Chasen.
Since 2016, Young has been involved with Scott Mitchell and a team based in Toronto, helping organize the Canadian Premier League, a professional soccer league in Canada. He owns the Hamilton Forge franchise. The league will begin play this month (April 2019).
His favorite current project is helping his wife Nancy run Raleigh-based Elizabeth Bradley Design Ltd and its Needlepoint.com store, a leading needlepoint supplier. Their mission is nothing less than to make the world a more beautiful place, by growing the community of enthusiastic needlepointers around the world.
His most beloved pastime is spending time with his growing family. He and his wife Nancy welcomed their first grandchild a year ago. Young also enjoys pursuing a bunch of hobbies, always badly. These include fly fishing, kite boarding, golf, and he collects the occasional antique typewriter—a nod to his beginnings as a typewriter salesman.
Sidenote: the Faces of Open Source Project
The photo of Linus in this article is by Peter Adams, a photographer I met a few months ago when he introduced me to a series he started in 2014 called Faces of Open Source. On that site, Peter writes, "Despite its wide ranging impact, the open source revolution remains all but unknown to most people who now, more than ever before, depend on its survival. This project is an attempt to change that." His purpose applies not only to the muggles who rely on open source, but to the wizards who write their own code and put it to use. Knowing who created the Open Source world we have now will surely help as we code up a future that embodies the same good values.—Doc Searls
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Made with Canon 5d Mark III and loved analog lens, Leica Summilux-R 1.4 / 50mm (Year: 1983)
Full image: Link
#photography #CC0 #Unsplash #APIRandom #Made #with #Canon #5d #Mark #III #and #loved #analog #lens #Leica #Summilux-R #14 #/ #50mm #Year: #1983
This is closed-source for now because of how long it would take to clean everything up; I coded as quickly/hackily as possible. 😢 If you want to see this in ...
Article word count: 71
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19547983
Posted by leafo (karma: 1361)
Post stats: Points: 136 - Comments: 34 - 2019-04-01T20:39:24Z
#HackerNews #piano #typing #video #with
This is closed-source for now because of how long it would take to clean everything up; I coded as quickly/hackily as possible. 😢
If you want to see this in action, I streamed myself doing typing tests for about 3½ hours here: https://www.twitch.tv/videos/404585365 (video is from April 1st, 2019, so that link will break after about 60 days).
If you scrolled THIS far down, then you must be looking for my "SoundCloud": https://bot.land
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A pair of new Yale studies confirm that dark matter is not always associated with traditional matter on a galactic scale — which settles a year-long debate.
Article word count: 672
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19536325
Posted by happy-go-lucky (karma: 17881)
Post stats: Points: 154 - Comments: 73 - 2019-03-31T16:13:27Z
#HackerNews #almost #confirm #dark #existence #galaxies #matter #new #studies #with
A Yale-led team of researchers is doubling down on its earlier finding of a galaxy with almost no dark matter.
In 2018, the researchers published their original study about galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 — DF2 for short — the first known galaxy to contain little or no dark matter. The finding was highly significant because it showed that dark matter is not always associated with traditional matter on a galactic scale. It also ruled out several theories that said dark matter is not a substance but a manifestation of the laws of gravity on a cosmic scale.
Invisible dark matter typically dominates the makeup of galaxies. Finding an object without dark matter was unprecedented and led to a good deal of debate within the scientific community.
“If there’s one object, you always have a little voice in the back of your mind saying, ‘but what if you’re wrong?’” said team leader Pieter van Dokkum, the Sol Goldman Family Professor of Astronomy at Yale. “Even though we did all the checks we could think of, we were worried that nature had thrown us for a loop and had conspired to make something look really special whereas it was really something more mundane.”
Now, a pair of new studies appearing in The Astrophysical Journal Letters supports the team’s initial finding.
“The fact that we’re seeing something that’s just completely new is what’s so fascinating,” said Yale graduate student Shany Danieli, who first spotted the galaxy about two years ago. “No one knew that such galaxies existed, and the best thing in the world for an astronomy student is to discover an object, whether it’s a planet, a star, or a galaxy, that no one knew about or even thought about.”
Danieli is the lead author of one of the new studies. It confirms the team’s initial observations of DF2, using more precise measurements from the W.M. Keck Observatory’s Keck Cosmic Web Imager. The researchers found that the stars inside the galaxy are moving at a speed consistent with the mass of the galaxy’s normal matter. If there were dark matter in DF2, the stars would be moving much faster.
Van Dokkum is lead author of the other new study, which details the discovery of a second galaxy devoid of dark matter. That galaxy is named DF4.
“Discovering a second galaxy with very little to no dark matter is just as exciting as the initial discovery of DF2,” van Dokkum said. “This means the chances of finding more of these galaxies are now higher than we previously thought. Since we have no good ideas for how these galaxies are formed, I hope these discoveries will encourage more scientists to work on this puzzle.”
Both DF2 and DF4 are part of a relatively new class of galaxies called ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). They are as large as the Milky Way but have between 100 to 1,000 times fewer stars. This makes them appear fluffy and translucent — and difficult to observe.
Ironically, the lack of dark matter in these UDGs strengthens the case for dark matter, the researchers say. It proves that dark matter is a substance that is not coupled with normal matter, since they can be found separately.
In addition to van Dokkum and Danieli, team members include Roberto Abraham of the University of Toronto, Aaron Romanowsky of San Jose State University, and Charlie Conroy of Harvard.
Danieli is leading a wide area survey with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array — a telescope designed by van Dokkum — to look for more examples in a systematic way, then observe candidates again using the Keck telescopes.
“We hope to next find out how common these galaxies are and whether they exist in other areas of the universe,” Danieli said. “We want to find more evidence that will help us understand how the properties of these galaxies work with our current theories. Our hope is that this will take us one step further in understanding one of the biggest mysteries in our universe — the nature of dark matter.”
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A small Seattle company shows that capitalism can have a heart.
Article word count: 974
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19534852
Posted by pseudolus (karma: 15655)
Post stats: Points: 82 - Comments: 107 - 2019-03-31T10:42:43Z
#HackerNews #70k #company #gravity #minimum #payments #salary #seattle #with
A small Seattle company shows that capitalism can have a heart.
By Nicholas Kristof
The customer service department at Gravity Payments, in Seattle.CreditCreditRuth Fremson/The New York Times
SEATTLE — Staff members gasped four years ago when Dan Price gathered the 120 employees at Gravity Payments, the company he had founded with his brother, and told them he was raising everyone’s salary to a minimum of $70,000, partly by slashing his own $1.1 million pay to the same level.
The news went viral and provoked a national debate about whether efficient capitalism could have a heart. Some Americans lauded Price for treating employees with dignity. However, on Fox Business he was labeled the “lunatic of all lunatics,” and Rush Limbaugh declared, “I hope this company is a case study in M.B.A. programs on how socialism does not work, because it’s going to fail.”
So I came to Seattle to see what had unfolded: Did Gravity succeed or crash?
There were bumps, no doubt about it. A couple of important employees quit, apparently feeling less valued when new hires were close to them in pay. The publicity forced Gravity, which processes credit card payments for small businesses, to hire additional people to handle a deluge of inquiries. Worst of all, Price’s brother, who owned a stake in the company, sued and alleged that Price hadn’t consulted him on decisions.
For a while, it wasn’t clear that the gamble was going to pay off.
But eventually it did: Business has surged, and profits are higher than ever. Gravity last year processed $10.2 billion in payments, more than double the $3.8 billion in 2014, before the announcement. It has grown to 200 employees, all nonunion.
Dan Price, owner of Gravity Payments, center, and a member of his staff, left, visiting a customer.CreditRuth Fremson/The New York Times
[Follow Nicholas Kristof as he travels around the United States and the world, shedding light on crises and hailing unsung heroes. For a behind-the-scenes look at Nick’s gritty journalism, sign up for his newsletter.]
The pay raise also helped attract new employees — including some who yearned to join a company with values. Tammi Kroll, a Yahoo executive, took an 80 percent pay cut to move to Gravity, where she is now chief operating officer.
“My whole goal when I went to school was to make more money,” said Kroll, who comes from a working-class background. But as she rose in the corporate world and her taxable income topped $1 million, she had an epiphany: “Money doesn’t make you happy, doesn’t make you a better person.”
When she heard about Gravity, her heart leapt — and so did she.
Entry-level employees benefited hugely from Price’s decision to raise the minimum wage. Seattle housing is expensive, so many residents had been unable to buy homes or start families. Maggie Goodall, 23, had been making $42,000 a year and couldn’t afford the $400 round-trip airfare to visit her home in Arkansas. After joining Gravity in September, with a $70,000-a-year salary, she was able to go to see her family again.
That’s the kind of thing Price says he was aiming for. He grew up in rural Idaho in an intensely Christian family and spent three hours a day listening to Limbaugh and two hours memorizing Scripture. He’s less religious today, but he says ethics remain deeply important to him.
Four years ago Mr. Price announced that he was raising the minimum salary of his employees to $70,000 a year.CreditRuth Fremson/The New York TimesSome of the company’s older credit card readers.CreditRuth Fremson/The New York Times
His brother’s lawsuit was dismissed, and Price bought him out. So Price now owns 100 percent of Gravity, giving him flexibility to do as he wants. The question remains whether raising pay so much would also be a good move for public companies answerable to shareholders.
“For Gravity, it’s worked out great, and I think this type of behavior on balance would work out great for every single company in the world,” Price told me. In the next breath, though, he acknowledged doubts about whether this would work everywhere.
It’s reasonable to be skeptical about how scalable this is. Price enjoyed publicity and new customers by being the first to go to $70,000; those benefits will not accrue to followers.
Jody Hall, a good liberal who worries about income inequality, owns a nearby cafe, Cupcake Royale. She chooses Gravity to process her payments, admires what Price has done and offers her own employees health care.
Yet she said that in the restaurant business, “the model would not nearly work.” Indeed, she worries that Seattle’s increase in the minimum wage to $15 will hurt small businesses like hers and may cost some jobs.
Still, one can believe that Price’s model is not fully scalable and also that it’s a powerful example showing that companies need not treat staff as serfs.
There is now a broad recognition that American capitalism is flawed — see Steven Pearlstein’s superb book “Can American Capitalism Survive?” — and our next step is to figure out how to move beyond blind rapacity. Price seems part of that national rethink.
The gasps when Price announced his $70,000 initiative were echoed in 2016 by his own, after grateful employees led him to the parking lot and presented him with a new Tesla that they had all chipped in to buy, replacing his ratty old car.
That’s probably not scalable, either. But Gravity shows that at least for some companies in some industries, it is possible to thrive while treating even the lowest-level workers with dignity. And that’s not the death of capitalism but perhaps part of its rebirth.
An employee in Gravityʼs engineering department.CreditRuth Fremson/The New York Times
Nicholas Kristof has been a columnist for The Times since 2001. He has won two Pulitzer Prizes, for his coverage of China and of the genocide in Darfur. You can sign up for his free, twice-weekly email newsletter and follow him on Instagram. @NickKristof • Facebook
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Librefox: Firefox with privacy enhancements. Contribute to intika/Librefox development by creating an account on GitHub.
Article word count: 34
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19522460
Posted by philonoist (karma: 1152)
Post stats: Points: 172 - Comments: 88 - 2019-03-29T15:24:41Z
#HackerNews #enhancements #firefox #librefox #privacy #with
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Abigail Disney, heiress to the Disney fortune, on being raised with wealth.
Article word count: 2607
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19524325
Posted by kaboro (karma: 1832)
Post stats: Points: 138 - Comments: 104 - 2019-03-29T18:36:53Z
#HackerNews #ever #grow #its #like #money #more #spend #than #what #with #youll
Get That Money is an exploration of the many ways we think about our finances — what we earn, what we have, and what we want.
Abigail Disney, 59, is an activist and Emmy-winning documentary filmmaker. She is also the granddaughter of Roy O. Disney, co-founder of The Walt Disney Company, making her an heiress to the Disney family fortune (she declines to say how much she inherited, but has given away over $70 million since she turned 21). Raised in North Hollywood, California, with three siblings, she has a doctorate from Columbia and currently lives in New York. Here, she talks about the paradoxes of growing up in tremendous wealth; she will also be featured on the Cut’s podcast, The Cut on Tuesdays, on April 9.
Growing up, did you know you were wealthy?
At least when I was young, my parents weren’t really showy people. The money didn’t really change them until later. Actually, they were really proud of being humble people — an oxymoron, I know. They wanted to raise us with the sense that we weren’t any better than anyone else.
That said, we lived in a big enough house that we would always get two doorbells on Halloween — people would ring the front and the back thinking it was two houses. But again, it wasn’t lavish. There weren’t private airplanes and things like that until I got older.
Do most people assume you’re rich when they meet you?
People do say to me, straight up, “Oh my God, you must be really rich.” In every interaction, you don’t get to make a first impression because they’re already thought about what they want to think about you before you even shake their hand.
What about situations where people don’t know you’re rich?
If I’m in a situation where people know my last name, they usually know it. But I’m not recognizable, so I can go through the world and restaurants and airports and interact with people like a normal person. That, I love. It’s great. There are very occasionally people for whom it never crosses their mind until later, and then they get freaked out.
This is the weird thing about my life: I am usually excited to meet someone in direct disproportion to how excited they are to meet me. I’m kind of a lefty, New York City, Manhattan, pointy-headed intellectual type. Those are the people who hate Disney and think it’s the worst thing on Earth, and that’s where I probably would be if I weren’t actually related to it.
When I meet people, I have an unfair advantage in being able to make them laugh because all I have to do is make a joke about Tinkerbell or Cinderella, and they love you for it. In some cases, all I have to do is not be a huge asshole. It’s like people think you’ll come in on a chariot or something. Within about an hour, invariably, they’ll say, “Oh my God, you’re so down to Earth.” I don’t know what people expect.
If I were queen of the world, I would pass a law against private jets, because they enable you to get around a certain reality.
Did you have a moment in your life when things started getting lavish and you realized, “Oh, I’m super rich”?
When I went off to college, Michael Eisner came in and reinvigorated the company, and then the stock price, which was basically my family’s entire net worth, was ten times, 20 times, 50 times what it had been when I was growing up. So all of the sudden, we went from being comfortable, upper-middle-class people to suddenly my dad had a private jet. That’s when I feel that my dad really lost his way in life. And that’s why I feel hyperconscious about what wealth does to people. I lived in one family as a child, and then I didn’t even recognize the family as I got older.
In what ways did your dad change, other than having a jet?
Actually, having a jet is a really big deal. If I were queen of the world, I would pass a law against private jets, because they enable you to get around a certain reality. You don’t have to go through an airport terminal, you don’t have to interact, you don’t have to be patient, you don’t have to be uncomfortable. These are the things that remind us we’re human.
My dad’s plane was a 737, and it was insane to have a 737 as a private airplane. It had a queen-sized bed with one big long seatbelt across it, and a shower, and it was ridiculous. We would use the plane occasionally because I have four kids, so it was much easier, obviously, to ride on my dad’s plane with them. Then, at a certain point, I just said, “No, I think this is really bad for everybody.”
How did the jet change your dad?
It wasn’t just the plane, but it’s not a small thing when you don’t have to be patient or be around other people. It creates this notion that you’re a little bit better than they are. And for the past 40 years, everything in American culture has been reinforcing that belief. We say, “Job creators, entrepreneurs, these are the people who make America great.” So there are people walking around with substantial wealth who think that they have it because they’re better. It’s fundamental to remember that you’re just a member of the human race, like everybody else, and there’s nothing about your money that makes you better than anyone else. If you don’t know that and you have money, it’s the road to hell, no matter how much stuff you have around you.
When did you stop riding the private jet?
The moment for me, when I decided I couldn’t fly in the plane anymore, was about 20 years ago. I had to fly out to California for a meeting but I had to get back to New York by the next morning for a conference. And the guy who ran our family’s company put me on the 737 alone. I flew across the country overnight, by myself on that giant plane, and I was sitting there thinking about the carbon footprint and the number of flight attendants and the other pilot on-call and what it was costing, and I just wanted to be sick. By the way, my parents always made fun of the fact that I thought it was terrible and awful because they were very comfortable with what they were doing.
What lessons did your parents teach you about money?
My mom was somebody who really liked having nice things, like Chanel suits. She would spend money on things that she really, really loved. But she also dressed like a slob, and she would be more delighted by a deal on toilet paper at the supermarket than any Chanel suit.
This is often true of rich people, isn’t it?
Yes. A lot of people go back and forth between these identities. My parents’ financial life changed in the ’80s, and I was an adult by then and I watched them kind of relax into it. I think of it as slouching into money. They were in their 50s and they liked the shortcuts that wealth gave them. It’s very hard to say no to things like that. But what ends up happening is you end up being surrounded by people who don’t tell “no,” ever. And as my father’s drinking problem grew, he was surrounded by people who wouldn’t say, “You have a terrible drinking problem. You need to go get some help.”
Are you cautious with money?
You know, I’m not. I’m 59, and now that I’ve been living in the world on my own and managing my own money for a while, I have developed the opposite view of almost everything that my parents did. I started giving money away in my 20s, and my parents thought that was crazy. But it was mine to give. Luckily, my grandfather gave us money directly, which was great because I never had to go to my parents and ask for anything. I was totally independent at 21. So I started giving money away. Within a couple of years I was giving away more money than my parents, who had much more money that I had, which they told me was embarrassing to them.
You don’t have to answer this, but I’m trying figure out how much you inherited, or a ballpark if you’re not comfortable talking about it.
Well, and the number has changed over the years. I’ll tell you this: I could be a billionaire if I wanted to be a billionaire, and I’m not because I don’t want to be a billionaire. That’s an insane amount of money. But it’s the easiest thing in the world to make money if you start with money. And then people give themselves credit for being that smart when they’re not.
About how much money have you given away?
I’ve given away in the range of $70 million in the last 30 years. I’m proud of that. I’m in a position to continue giving a lot of money away until the day I die. I really considered giving it all away at a certain point in my 20s, and I know people who did that. And I wish I could tell you that it was courage that kept me from doing that, but it was mortal fear. I didn’t think I would be able to survive. I was afraid I was a hothouse flower. I didn’t know if I could live on my own.
Now I’m glad I didn’t give it all away, because my money has grown. Now I’ve given away so much more than I inherited. And I’m so much smarter now. What I would’ve done in my 20s would have been great and nice, but I’m so much more effective now.
Money is morally neutral. It does not, in and of itself, make you a bad person.
What do you enjoy spending money on?
I live in a constant state of tension about that. I really love a very good meal at very good restaurants and a very good bottle of wine. I really love a beautiful pair of shoes, and I’ll spend way too much money on that, or a purse. Luckily, I’m not a real-estate girl; I don’t need a ranch and a ski resort and whatever else. And I don’t want a private jet because it hollows you out from the inside. So I’m lucky that the things I love are really not expensive, considering. But to most normal people, what I spend on a really good dinner at a really good restaurant, that would be horrifying. They couldn’t even imagine spending that. So I wouldn’t pass muster with a lot of lefties, I have to say.
Has the way you spend money changed?
I think that people who grow up in this kind of life go one of two ways. They either go the Kim Kardashian route, which is spending, spending, spending, completely absorbing the idea that, “Yes, you are that special,” and wanting everyone to look at you. Or, and I know a lot of people who’ve gone this way — especially my women friends — you do the opposite. I wore shitty clothes around. I didn’t want anyone to know what I had. I spent most of my 20s in graduate school, and graduate school is where people shame you for having money. I was embarrassed by it. I didn’t want anyone to know. And actually, my kids are kind of that way now. They don’t want anyone to know and they want to support themselves. I keep trying to tell them that money is morally neutral. It does not, in and of itself, make you a bad person. It also does not, in and of itself, makes you a good person. You are who you are and the least important thing about you is what you have. That was not, “You haven’t earned it,” you know. So my philosophy is you try to earn it in reverse.
What’s that dynamic like? Do you see other wealthy people and think, “Oh, you earned your money, whereas I was given it”?
I certainly have an inferiority complex around people who have actually earned their money. I did grow up with this doubt about myself. Like, did Yale really say yes because I was that good, or did Yale say yes because of my last name? I’ll never know. I’ve spent a lot of time earning things like post graduate degrees that make me feel legitimate. And those feelings have started to go away. But that’s outsourcing your sense of self. That is handing your self-esteem to the world to tell you whether or not you’re allowed to have any. And that’s a dangerous game.
I’m curious if you have any friends that aren’t wealthy, and how you found them.
Oh yeah. That’s actually a hard thing to find. The way I did start to form really strong relationships was when I went on the board of the New York Women’s Foundation in 1992. They described themselves as a cross-class alliance of women helping women across New York City, which sounds very canned, but honestly it’s exactly that. And that’s where I began to form relationships with people who were very different to me.
I remember this wonderful Korean lady came over for a meeting at my house, and the next day she called me and she said, “You didn’t offer me a glass of water.” And that never crossed my mind, but I have to be conscious of the fact that people who come into my home are coming into a place that feels daunting and intimidating, and I need to go to the extra mile to make them feel welcome. And I didn’t know about that until someone just came out and said it to me. Just like I watched my father increasingly surround himself with yes men, I started to deliberately surrounding myself with no ladies. And so they would, a lot of the time, really jerk my chain, and that was important.
Is it hard to trust that someone is interested in you for you, if there’s an inequality there?
That is the worst. And I have gotten a really good radar about that. There are people where you can practically see dollar bills in their eyeballs when they’re talking to you. And they are not bad people. How you feel about money is greatly related to how you were raised, so I don’t hold that against you, but I will keep you at arm’s length. I can’t be an idiot, but I would rather be duped from time to time — and pay that price — than become a person who lives in mistrust. When I get duped, I just chalk it up to the rent I’m paying for not living on Planet Suspicious.
They did a study at the Chronicle of Philanthropy years ago where they asked people who inherited money, “What amount of money would you need to feel totally secure?” And every single one of them, no matter what they had, named a number that was roughly twice what they inherited. So that’s what you need to know about money, right? If that is your primary measure of success or value in life, then good luck with that, because it will never feel good.
What It’s Like to Have More Money Than You’ll Ever Spend
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I’ll be wording this post carefully as What 3 Words (W3W) have a tenacious PR team and, probably, have a lot more lawyers than I do. W3W is a closed product. It is a for-profit company masque…
Article word count: 1082
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19511917
Posted by MagicAndi (karma: 137)
Post stats: Points: 175 - Comments: 63 - 2019-03-28T13:25:15Z
#HackerNews #bother #three #what #why #with #words
Iʼll be wording this post carefully as What 3 Words (W3W) have a tenacious PR team and, probably, have a lot more lawyers than I do.
W3W is a closed product. It is a for-profit company masquerading as an open standard. And that annoys me.
A brief primer.
* The world is a sphere. * We can reference any point on the surface of Earth using two co-ordinates, Longitude and Latitude. * Long/Lat are numbers. They can be as precise or as vague as needed. * Humans canʼt remember long strings of numbers, and reading them out is difficult.
W3W aims to solve this. It splits the world into a grid, and gives every square a unique three-word phrase.
So the location 51.50799,-0.12803 becomes ///mile.crazy.shade
Hereʼs all the problems I have with W3W.
It isnʼt open
The algorithm used to generate the words is proprietary. You are not allowed to see it. You cannot find out your location without asking W3W for permission.
You cannot store locations. You have to let them analyse the locations you look up. Want to use more than 10,000 addresses? Contact them for prices!
It is the antithesis of open.
W3W refuses to publish their prices. You have to contact their sales team if you want to know what it will cost your organisation.
Open standards are free to use.
When an earthquake struck Japan, street addresses didnʼt change but that their physical location did.
That is, a street address is still 42 Acacia Avenue - but the Longitude and Latitude has changed.
Perhaps you think this is an edge case? It isnʼt. Australia is drifting so fast that GPS canʼt keep up.
How does W3W deal with this? Their grid is static, so any tectonic activity means your W3W changes.
Numbers are fairly universal. Lots of countries use 0-9. English words are not universal. How does W3W deal with this?
Is "cat.dog.goose" straight translated into French? No! Each language has its own word list.
There is no way to translate between languages. You have to beg W3W for permission for access to their API. They do not publish their word lists or the mappings between them.
So, if I want to tell a French speaker where ///mile.crazy.shade is, I have to use ///embouchure.adjuger.saladier
Loosely translated back as ///mouth.award.bowl an entirely different location!
Youʼre not allowed to know what word lists W3W use. They take a paternalistic attitude to creating their lists - they know best. You cannot propose changes.
Anecdotally, their non-English word lists are confusing even for native speakers.
Numbers are (mostly) culturally neutral. Words are not. Is "mile.crazy.shade" a respectful name for a war memorial? How about ///tribes.hurt.stumpy for a temple?
How do you feel about ///weepy.lulls.emerge and ///grouchy.hormone.elevating both being at Auschwitz? Or ///klartext.bestückt.vermuten - "cleartext stocked suspect"?
This is a classic computer science problem. Every sufficiently long word list can eventually be recombined into a potentially offensive phrase.
W3W know that the majority of technical people are not fooled by their attempts to lock down addressing.
They include this paragraph to attempt to prove their openness:
If we, what3words ltd, are ever unable to maintain the what3words technology or make arrangements for it to be maintained by a third-party (with that third-party being willing to make this same commitment), then we will release our source code into the public domain. We will do this in such a way and with suitable licences and documentation to ensure that any and all users of what3words, whether they are individuals, businesses, charitable organisations, aid agencies, governments or anyone else can continue to rely on the what3words system.
I donʼt know how they propose to bind a successor organisation. They donʼt say what licences they will use. If they go bust, thereʼs no guarantee theyʼll be legally able to release this code, nor may they have the time to do so.
Thereʼs nothing stopping W3W from releasing their algorithms now, subjecting them to scrutiny by the standards community. They could build up a community of experts to help improve the system, they could work with existing mapping efforts, they could help build a useful and open standard.
But they donʼt. They guard their secrets and actively promote their proprietary product in the hope it will become widely accepted and then they can engage in rent-seeking behaviour.
This is not a new argument
My mate Leigh wrote about this three years ago. Lots of people have criticised W3W.
.@what3words is bad technical idea, and ethically terrible too. But all VCs like patented economic rents so the juggernaut rolls on. #geomob — Andy Allan (@gravitystorm) July 14, 2016
But W3W have a great PR team - pushing press releases which are then reported as uncritical news.
The most recent press release contains a ludicrous example:
* Person dials the emergency services * Person doesnʼt know their location * Emergency services sends the person a link * Person clicks on link, opens web page * Web page geolocates user and displays their W3W location * Person reads out their W3W phrase to the emergency services
Hereʼs the thing... If the personʼs phone has a data connection - the web page can just send the geolocation directly back to the emergency services! No need to get a human to read it out, then another human to listen and type it in to a different system.
There is literally no need for W3W in this scenario. If you have a data connection, you can send your precise location without an intermediary.
W3W succeeds because it has a superficially simple solution to a complex problems. It is a brilliant lesson in how marketing and PR can help a technologically inferior project look like it is a global open solution.
Iʼm not joking. Their branding firm says:
Edelman helped what3words frame their story to be compelling by tapping into human emotion. We also created a story for CEO Chris Sheldrick about how having an address can drive social transformation and business efficiency, securing profiling and speaker opportunities. Through paid social campaigns we re-targeted these stories, getting through to the decision makers that mattered most. We articulated their purpose narrative and refined their strategy to engage investors and excite the media.
It takes too much time to refute all their claims - but we must. Whenever you see people mentioning What3Words, politely remind them that it is not an open standard and should be avoided.
Your periodic reminder that W3W is a closed and proprietary system, with opaque licencing, hefty pricing, and poor internationalisation. It does have a very good PR team though. https://t.co/Ch3e9cAfsn — Terence Eden (@edent) March 26, 2019
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Have you ever been interested in monitoring the air quality in your home or outside where you live and work? This project, which we’ve dubbed balenaSense, will get you up and running with a setup to…
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19506983
Posted by alexandros (karma: 11809)
Post stats: Points: 137 - Comments: 43 - 2019-03-27T22:46:24Z
#HackerNews #air #and #build #docker #grafana #influxdb #monitor #quality #raspberry #with
Have you ever been interested in monitoring the air quality in your home or outside where you live and work? This project, which we’ve dubbed balenaSense, will get you up and running with a setup to take readings of temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, and air quality, and provide a dashboard that you can access from anywhere to see the stats at a glance and monitor trends.
Table of contents
Building an air quality & weather station used to involve a lot of wiring and different sensors, but with the advent of sensors that combine all the readings into one component on a nice little breakout board, it’s easy to get started.
We’re going to look at monitoring temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and air quality using an all-in-one sensor that connects directly to a Raspberry Pi with no additional components required. You don’t need any experience in electronics but a soldering iron would be handy (although not required). This project implements a database to store historic readings along with a graphical interface to see current readings and trends at a glance.
Here’s the shopping list for this project. Depending if you’d like to crack out the soldering iron or not will dictate what sensor board you can use; some are plug and play, some require a little soldering.
I donʼt want to solder
If you donʼt want to solder, youʼll need:
I want to solder - let me at it!
If youʼre happy doing a little soldering, youʼll need:
If you already have one, this project also supports the use of the Sense HAT, with the added bonus that youʼll get a smiley face showing on the LED matrix (depending on the air quality, of course)!
You can get hold of the Bosch BME680 sensor on a breakout board from a variety of vendors too, all at varying costs.
Note: The Pimoroni breakout board is the one we’ve used in this article; this board has the added benefit that the pins are broken out in the correct order to just plug straight into the Raspberry Pi GPIO header. When using other boards you’ll need to be careful to ensure the pins for power, ground and the I2C bus (SDA and SCL) are matched - this is explained further on in the guide.
We’ve set up the balena-sense project on GitHub which contains all of the software, configuration and code you’ll need to start taking readings straight away. We’re going to deploy this project on balenaCloud using a free account to push the project and all the software to your Raspberry Pi as well as to provide remote access. Therefore, you’ll need:
Putting the hardware together
You’ve got very little to do on the hardware front for this project; our goal here is to connect the sensor board you purchased to the Raspberry Pi general purpose input/output (GPIO) header.
The BME680 sensor communicates with the Raspberry Pi over a bus called I2C (eye-squared-see), which is a serial communication bus that requires 2 wires. These two communication wires are referred to as serial clock (SCK) and serial data (SDA). In addition to the two communication wires, we also need to provide the sensor with power (3.3V, or 3V3) and ground.
If you went for the solder-free option from Pimoroni or Sparkfun, or are using the Sense HAT, you’ll just have to plug your shiny new components together along with your Raspberry Pi, and all of the connections will be made for you - go forth, to the next step!
If you decided to connect a sensor directly to your Raspberry Pi, either the Pimoroni one or any one of the other breakout boards from one of the other suppliers, the main things to watch out for are that the pins described above (SDA, SCK, 3V3 and GND) are correctly connected.
A useful site for working with the GPIO header on your Raspberry Pi is pinout.xyz; it clearly shows us that the pins we need are 1 (3V3 power), 3 (SDA), 5 (SCL), and 9 (Ground). The 40 pin GPIO header is standard across the Pi 2 and later. You’ll notice that if you’re using the Pimoroni board and solder on the included header, the pins are in exactly the right order to connect the boards together. Notice how the writing on the board matches the pins in the pinout diagram above.
However, if you connect the sensor like this you may find the readings are affected by the heat from the Raspberry Pi CPU; more accurate readings can be taken by extending the sensor away from the board, which can be achieved using male-to-female Dupont cables (or Jumper Jerky), as below:
Similarly, if you’re using one of the other sensors where the pinout diagrams do not match exactly, you can connect these boards to your Pi using the same method, ensuring that you match up 3V3, SDA, SCL, and GND. Your board may also have pins for SDI, SDO, CS - you can ignore these and leave them unconnected as they’re used for an alternative serial peripheral interface (SPI) to the sensor which we’re not using in this project.
In the photos above we’re using a Raspberry Pi 3A+, but you can use a Pi Zero as pictured at the start of the guide for a lower cost solution.
Setting up the Raspberry Pi
We’re going to flash an SD card with balenaOS via a download from the balenaCloud dashboard and add the device in order to push the project, and set things up in such a way it can easily be updated later.
The first thing to do is to get set up with a balenaCloud account; this means signing up if you haven’t already, adding an application and adding a device.
Step 1 - Sign up to balenaCloud
The first thing you’ll need to do is sign up for an account. If you’ve already got a GitHub or Google account you can use that to login and bypass the signup process.
Sign up here
Step 2 - Create an application
Add an application selecting the correct device type for the device you’re using, and choosing Starter as the application type, then hit Create New Application. Using the starter application will provide you with all of the features of the microservices application and is free up to and including your tenth device.
This will take you to the dashboard for your newly created application, where you can move on to the next step and add your device. The name you give your application is up to you, but youʼll need it later on in the guide when you push your code.
Step 3 - Add a device and download the OS
Once your application has been created, you can setup and add a device within that application by clicking the green ʼadd deviceʼ button. When you add a device you specify your device type, which is important that it matches the device you’re using, and if you are connecting to a wireless network you can set your WiFI SSID and passphrase here too.
This process creates a customized image configured for your application and device type and includes your network settings if you specified them.
Note: When youʼre first getting started, a development image will be most useful, as it permits a number of testing and troubleshooting features. More details on the differences between development and production images can be found here. If youʼre confident you can go ahead and deploy the production image straight away -- thatʼs what Iʼm running.
Step 4 - Flash your SD card and boot the device
Once the OS image has been downloaded, it’s time to flash your SD card. You can use balenaEtcher for this.
Once the flashing process has completed, insert your SD card into the Raspberry Pi and connect the power supply.
When the device boots for the first time, it connects to the balenaCloud dashboard, after which you’ll be able to see it listed as online and move onto the next step.
Troubleshooting: It should only take a few minutes for the new device to appear in your dashboard, If your device still hasnʼt shown up on your dashboard after a few minutes, something has gone wrong. Thereʼs an extensive troubleshooting guide in the documentation, with lots of information on why this could be, but if you still canʼt get your device online, come on over to the forums where we’ll be able to help out.
Deploying the software
Now that your Raspberry Pi has been provisioned, has booted, and connected to balenaCloud, youʼre ready to push the application code to the device.
Installing the balena CLI tools
If you already have (or can setup) npm on your machine, this is most likely the easiest way to get the CLI tools up and running quickly. However, there are also standalone binaries for Windows, macOS and Linux available. Note: if youʼve already installed these tools to complete another of our projects, you donʼt need to do this part again - skip directly to the next step.
The documentation for the CLI tools is the best place to start and covers the installation and setup of both the npm package and the standalone binaries.
When you have the CLI installed and working, the first step is to login to balenaCloud by issuing the balena login command:
Once you’ve reached this point, and have a working CLI which has been logged in to your account, youʼre ready to start pushing code to your Raspberry Pi.
Downloading the project from GitHub
The next step is to download the code for this project from GitHub. Go to: https://github.com/balena-io-projects/balena-sense/ and download the project.
The blue button will download a .zip file of the project which youʼll need to unzip, but if youʼre already familiar with Git you can use git clone in the normal way.
Pushing the project code to your Raspberry Pi
As you have the CLI setup and the latest code downloaded, you can now execute a single command to push that code to balenaCloud which in turn builds the Docker image and handles the process of setting it up and running it on your device.
From within the unzipped project directory, execute balena push , where appName is the application name you set back at the beginning of the guide. For example: balena push balenaSense.
If everything worked out correctly, after a few minutes your device information screen in the dashboard should look something like this, showing the services running, one for each of the software components.
When you push the code for the first time it can take a few minutes to download (dependant on your internet connection speed) but after that, only the changes in the container are downloaded so things happen much quicker.
Note: that when the application first starts (and youʼre using the BME680 rather than the Sense HAT) the sensor performs a ‘burn-in’ over a 5-minute period. Readings will not be taken and readings not inserted into the database during this period. The application will log a countdown, which you can see within the balenaCloud dashboard as per the below screenshot:
After the countdown has reached zero, you’ll see a message that says ‘Starting loop…` and readings will now be taken and inserted into the database every 10 seconds.
Viewing the dashboard
Hopefully you got your device flashed, connected to your network and up and running without too much trouble. One of the great benefits of using a free balenaCloud account is that you’re able to use the Public Device URL feature.
Enable this toggle on your device and click the blue arrow to access the dashboard; you can share this link or bookmark it for use from your phone or another mobile device. As long as your balenaSense device is online and working, you’ll be able to access your dashboard from anywhere!
If you don’t want to enable the public device access, you can still view the dashboard from within your own local network by using the IP address value from the image above. Yours will be different, but if you enter http:// into a browser, you’ll still be able to access the dashboard as long as you’re on the same network as the device. For example, to access my device I would use http://10.1.231.36.
If youʼd like to log in to Grafana and start playing with the settings, the default credentials are admin and admin.
How does it work?
This project has 3 main components, which are separated into 3 services. These are the names of the services you’ll see on your balenaCloud dashboard:
* InfluxDB - A database, used for storing sensor readings * Sensor - The Python library and code for accessing the sensor, taking readings and saving them in the database * Grafana - Used for creating a dashboard with graphs & reports
The BME680 sensor from Bosch gives us readings for temperature, humidity, pressure and a gas content reading provided in terms of resistance. The sensors for temperature, humidity, and pressure give us useful readings out of the box, but the gas resistance reading on its own is not a lot of use. It gives us an indication of the change in compounds in the air, so when the sensor application starts, it sets a baseline and monitors change. The indicative air quality reading is given in percentage and takes into account the effect of humidity and gas reading.
If youʼre using the Sense HAT, which doesnʼt have a gas sensor, weʼve approximated the air quality reading using target values for temperature and humidity.
So by now hopefully you’ve got the project fully up and running, have accessed the dashboard and have been taking readings and filling up your database. Here are a few more things to take a look at before you move on to the next project.
Change the password
If you’re leaving your device publically accessible, it’s a good idea to change the password for Grafana.
We’ve set the system up with a default username and password of admin and admin. You can change this by logging into Grafana using the button in the lower left corner of the dashboard; you’ll be prompted to change it upon first login.
The dashboard & reporting software we’re using, Grafana, has a lot of configuration options and settings for you to play with. We’ve set up a basic dashboard that gives you a gauge and a graph for each of the 4 readings that we’re taking.
You can customize each panel on Grafana after you’ve logged in by hovering over the title and going to edit. I recommend having a play with the options - the changes to your dashboard are not saved automatically so if you make a mistake you can reload the page and everything will revert to how it was. If you make some changes you want to keep, hit save at the top of the dashboard and all of your settings will be saved to your device.
You can customize the gauges too; for example on the pressure gauge, we’ve set up some basic bands and text values to replace the numbers. You’re free to edit all these to whatever works for you!
Build a housing
Sensors like this ideally like to be housed in a radiation shield (sometimes called a Stevenson Screen), to prevent sunlight and radiated heat affecting the readings. If you’re monitoring the environment indoors, it isn’t quite so critical, but if you’re monitoring outdoors, positioning and protecting the sensor is important to get accurate readings.
Commercial radiation shields are available, such as this one from Davis, but can be quite expensive, so there are DIY options around too.
There are a few different options for BME680 housings and Stevenson screens on Thingiverse; take a look and see if any of the designs will work for your application.
Thanks for reading! If you decided to build your own air quality monitor, we’d love to hear how it went, similarly if you got stuck, have any questions or just have some suggestions for future development of the project, let us know in our forums at https://forums.balena.io, on Twitter @balena_io, on Instagram @balena_io or on Facebook.
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Made with Canon 5d Mark III and Meyer Optik Görlitz Primoplan 1.9 / 75mm
Full image: Link
#photography #CC0 #Unsplash #APIRandom #Made #with #Canon #5d #Mark #III #and #Meyer #Optik #Görlitz #Primoplan #19 #/ #75mm
How Asmara in Eritrea unintentionally became a cycling paradise.
Article word count: 566
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19497878
Posted by nairteashop (karma: 1172)
Post stats: Points: 97 - Comments: 60 - 2019-03-27T03:07:21Z
#HackerNews #african #capital #cycling #heaven #the #traffic #with
Cyclists in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
A combination of factors ranging from conflict to diplomatic isolation have unintentionally turned the Eritrean capital into a cycling paradise.
Asmara only has about 500,000 inhabitants, which combined with low salaries, high import taxes and fuel shortages means the city has few vehicles. Those you do see often tend to be from a different age.
Cyclists in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni A donkey cart on a road in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
Roads are not only relatively empty of cars. Locals lament the departure of great numbers of young Eritreans who have left over the last 20 years because of hardships brought by regional conflicts and enforced national service under a government that brooks little dissent.
Liberty Avenue in Asmara, Eritrea pictured in August 2018
As a result of its circumstances, Asmara offers a very different landscape compared to many African cities congested with traffic. This, combined with the wonderful climate, makes it a dream for cyclists to get around. "Cycling is part of our culture," says a 25-year-old man.
A man on a bicycle riding past a street market in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
Asmaraʼs architecture is also admired and it was recently made a Unesco World Heritage Site for its striking art deco buildings, a legacy of the countryʼs time as an Italian colony from 1897 until 1943.
A street scene in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
Bike repair shops abound all over Asmara. Eritrea has a long history of self-reliance that began during its 30-year war for independence from Ethiopia, after which its international isolation has made importing bicycles and spare parts extremely expensive.
A bicycle repair stall in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
Eritreans ride bicycles of all kinds and colours: mountain-bikes, city bikes, racing bikes. Young and old, women and men, athletes and housewives - all seem to embrace the "bicicletta", the word for bicycle in the local language, Tigrinya, that is borrowed from Italian.
A man on a bicycle riding past a bike repair shop in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
Those who rely on public transport have to endure long waits before jumping on an extremely crowded bus. "Buses are so old and so few," says Salam, a 30-year-old graduate. "Having a bicycle is life-saving here."
A bus station with old buses, markets traders and some people with bicycles in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
Environmental sustainability has long been promoted by the government. This has included limiting plastic production and usage, reforestation campaigns, safeguarding the countryʼs green areas and distributing bikes imported from Dubai and China.
People with bicycles walking past street stalls in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
For many Eritreans money is tight, and even if vehicles are available, bicycles remain the most affordable mode of transport.
A man cycling past a market in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
The recent peace deal with Ethiopia in July 2018 resulted in the border opening for the first time in 20 years. Now cheap Ethiopian merchandise is sold all over the country, lowering the cost of living.
People and someone with a bicycle walking past a street stall selling tupperware in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
A combination of conflict, diplomatic isolation and UN sanctions, lifted after nine years last November, means there are still shortages of many products. Lack of fuel has resulted in cars and buses often having to be parked up for a long time, leaving people few choices other than walking or pedalling to get around.
A donkey on a street with several bicycles in Asmara, Eritrea Image copyright Milena Belloni
Cycling is the most popular sport among Eritreans. Introduced by the Italians, competitive cycling is a source of pride among the population. The Eritrean national team, which includes Mosana Debesay pictured below in Austria last September, is extremely successful in international races.
Mosana Debesay of Eritrea at the 91st UCI Road World Championships 2018 on 25 September 2018 in Innsbruck, Austria Image copyright Getty Images
The recent rapprochement with Ethiopia has left many Eritreans hoping that the economy can develop faster, making everyday life in Asmara easier.
x Image copyright Milena Belloni
By anthropologist Milena Belloni and journalist James Jeffrey
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19496470
Posted by pseudolus (karma: 14610)
Post stats: Points: 126 - Comments: 111 - 2019-03-26T22:09:12Z
#HackerNews #are #friends #less #person #spending #teens #their #time #with
Ask a teen today how she communicates with her friends, and she’ll probably hold up her smartphone. Not that she actually calls her friends; it’s more likely that she texts them or messages them on social media.
Today’s teens – the generation I call “iGen” that’s also called Gen Z – are constantly connected with their friends via digital media, spending as much as nine hours a day on average with screens.
How might this influence the time they spend with their friends in person?
Some studies have found that people who spend more time on social media actually have more face time with friends.
But studies like this are only looking at people already operating in a world suffused with smartphones. They can’t tell us how teens spent their time before and after digital media use surged.
What if we zoomed out and compared how often previous generations of teens spent time with their friends to how often today’s teens are doing so? And what if we also saw how feelings of loneliness differed across the generations?
To do this, my co-authors and I examined trends in how 8.2 million U.S. teens spent time with their friends since the 1970s. It turns out that today’s teens are socializing with friends in fundamentally different ways – and also happen to be the loneliest generation on record.
Less work, but fewer hangs?
After studying two large, nationally representative surveys, we found that although the amount of time teens spent with their friends face to face has declined since the 1970s, the drop accelerated after 2010 – just as smartphones use started to grow.
Compared with teenagers in previous decades, iGen teens are less likely to get together with their friends. They’re also less likely to go to parties, go out with friends, date, ride in cars for fun, go to shopping malls or go to the movies.
It’s not because they are spending more time on work, homework or extracurricular activities. Today’s teens hold fewer paid jobs, homework time is either unchanged or down since the 1990s, and time spent on extracurricular activities is about the same.
Yet they’re spending less time with their friends in person – and by large margins. In the late 1970s, 52 percent of 12th-graders got together with their friends almost every day. By 2017, only 28 percent did. The drop was especially pronounced after 2010.
Today’s 10th-graders go to about 17 fewer parties a year than 10th-graders in the 1980s did. Overall, 12th-graders now spend an hour less on in-person social interaction on an average day than their Gen X predecessors did.
We wondered if these trends would have implications for feelings of loneliness, which are also measured in one of the surveys. Sure enough, just as the drop in face-to-face time accelerated after 2010, teens’ feelings of loneliness shot upward.
Among 12th graders, 39 percent said they often felt lonely in 2017, up from 26 percent in 2012. Thirty-eight percent said they often felt left out in 2017, up from 30 percent in 2012. In both cases, the 2017 numbers were all-time highs since the questions were first asked in 1977, with loneliness declining among teens before suddenly increasing.
A new cultural norm
As previous studies have shown, we did find that those teens who spent more time on social media also spent more time with their friends in person.
So why have in-person social interactions been going down, overall, as digital media use has increased?
It has to do with the group versus the individual.
Imagine a group of friends that doesn’t use social media. This group regularly gets together, but the more outgoing members are willing to hang out more than others, who might stay home once in a while. Then they all sign up for Instagram. The social teens are still more likely to meet up in person, and they’re also more active on their accounts.
However, the total number of in-person hangs for everyone in the group drops as social media replaces some face-to-face time.
So the decline in face-to-face interaction among teens isn’t just an individual issue; it’s a generational one. Even teens who eschew social media are affected: Who will hang out with them when most of their peers are alone in their bedrooms scrolling through Instagram?
Higher levels of loneliness are just the tip of the iceberg. Rates of depression and unhappiness also skyrocketed among teens after 2012, perhaps because spending more time with screens and less time with friends isn’t the best formula for mental health.
Some have argued that teens are simply choosing to communicate with their friends in a different way, so the shift toward electronic communication isn’t concerning.
That argument assumes that electronic communication is just as good for assuaging loneliness and depression as face-to-face interaction. It seems clear that this isn’t the case. There’s something about being around another person – about touch, about eye contact, about laughter – that can’t be replaced by digital communication.
The result is a generation of teens who are lonelier than ever before.
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Interviews with experienced software developers on moving to management
Article word count: 9
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19485559
Posted by siddhant (karma: 2137)
Post stats: Points: 161 - Comments: 65 - 2019-03-25T18:54:00Z
#HackerNews #became #developers #interviews #managers #who #with
Logo DEVELOPER TO MANAGER
* Browse Interviews * Share Your Advice * About
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Dunford said he was concerned that the work Google was doing with China on AI was undermining the U.S military.
Article word count: 398
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19464724
Posted by Jerry2 (karma: 14854)
Post stats: Points: 123 - Comments: 78 - 2019-03-22T17:24:57Z
#HackerNews #advantage #china #dunford #eroding #googles #military #says #with #work
Joint Chiefs Chairman Gen. Joseph Dunford said Thursday that he would likely be meeting next week with Google executives on his concerns that the work Google was doing with China on artificial intelligence and other technologies was undermining the U.S military.
"This is not about me and Google, this about us looking at the second and third order effects of our business ventures in China [and]the impact itʼs going to have on U.S. ability to maintain a competitive military advantage and all that goes with it," Dunford said.
Dunford said he had general concerns about other U.S. business ventures in China, but "In the case of Google, they were highlighted because they have an artificial intelligence venture in China."
U.S. companies must realize that in doing business with China, "they are automatically required to have a cell of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in that company and that itʼs going to lead to that intellectual property from that company finding its way to the Chinese military," Dunford said. "Thereʼs a distinction without a difference between the CCP and the government and the Chinese military."
Historically, one of the reasons for the U.S. maintaining a military advantage over other nations has been enduring partnerships between the Pentagon and industry, and Chinese President Xi Jinping has taken a similar path in Chinaʼs effort to erase the U.S. advantage, Dunford said.
Unless precautions are taken, U.S. business ventures in China could "enable the Chinese military to take advantage of the technology developed in the United States," Dunford said.
The remarks at the Atlantic Council event echoed those expressed by Dunford and Acting Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan at a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing last week on Google and other firms doing business in China while showing reluctance to work with the U.S. military.
Last year, Google announced that it would not renew a contract with the Pentagon for artificial intelligence work, following protests from employees who charged that the technology could be used for lethal purposes.
At the Senate hearing, Shanahan said that Google has shown "a lack of willingness to support DoD programs."
He added that China often uses technology developed in the private sector for military purposes.
"The technology that is developed in the civil world transfers to the military world; itʼs a direct pipeline," Shanahan said.
-- Richard Sisk can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Just before going to class and running over it with my tire a had to take a photo of this fungus!
Location: Puerto Rico, Mayaguez
Full image: Link
#photography #CC0 #Unsplash #APIRandom #Just #before #going #to #class #and #running #over #it #with #my #tire #a #had #to #take #a #photo #of #this #fungus #PuertoRico #Mayaguez
The search engine has been fined for blocking rival online search advertisers.
Article word count: 375
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19440926
Posted by okket (karma: 35450)
Post stats: Points: 169 - Comments: 140 - 2019-03-20T11:15:48Z
#HackerNews #€15bn #advertising #fine #from #google #hit #over #with
Google logo Image copyright Getty Images Image caption Alphabetʼs Google remains a dominant force in online advertising
Google has been hit with a €1.49bn (£1.28bn) fine from the EU for blocking rival online search advertisers.
It is the third EU fine for the search and advertising giant in two years.
The case accuses Google of abusing its market dominance by restricting third-party rivals from displaying search ads between 2006 and 2016.
In response, Google changed its AdSense contracts with large third parties, giving them more leeway to display competing search ads.
Google owner Alphabet makes large amounts of money from advertising - pre-tax profits reached $30.7bn (£23bn) in 2018, up from $12.66bn in 2017.
"Google has cemented its dominance in online search adverts and shielded itself from competitive pressure by imposing anti-competitive contractual restrictions on third-party websites.
"This is illegal under EU anti-trust rules," said EC commissioner Margrethe Vestager.
Last year, the EU competition authority hit Google with a record €4.34bn fine for using its popular Android mobile operating system to block rivals.
This followed a €2.42bn fine in 2017 for hindering rivals of shopping comparison websites.
The European Commission said that websites often had an embedded search function.
When a consumer uses this, the website delivers both search results and search adverts, which appear alongside the search result.
Googleʼs "AdSense for search" product delivers those adverts for website publishers.
The Commission described Google as acting like "an intermediary, like an advertising broker".
In 2006, Google started to include "exclusivity clauses" in contracts which stopped publishers from placing ads from Google rivals such as Microsoft and Yahoo on search pages, the Commission said.
From 2009, Google started replacing the exclusivity clauses with "premium placement" clauses, which meant publishers had to keep the most profitable space on their search results pages for Googleʼs adverts and they had to request a minimum number of Google adverts.
Publishers also needed to get written permission from Google before making any changes to how rival ads were displayed, letting Google control "how attractive, and therefore clicked on, competing search adverts could be", the Commission said.
Between 2006 to 2016, Google had more than 70% of the search intermediation market in the EU. It generally had more than 90% of the search market and more than 75% of the online search advertising market, the Commission added.
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Best practice and tips & tricks to write scientific papers in LaTeX, with figures generated in Python or Matlab. - Wookai/paper-tips-and-tricks
Article word count: 34
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19425637
Posted by Wookai (karma: 191)
Post stats: Points: 129 - Comments: 51 - 2019-03-18T21:42:59Z
#HackerNews #and #figures #generated #latex #papers #python #tips #tricks #with #write
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Compromises required to push forward a more fuel-efficient version of Boeing's 737 — with larger engines and altered aerodynamics — led to the complex flight control software system that is now under…
Article word count: 1439
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19414164
Posted by eplanit (karma: 11072)
Post stats: Points: 126 - Comments: 114 - 2019-03-17T14:26:21Z
#HackerNews #50-year-old #737 #back #boeing #came #design #haunt #its #jet #max #troubled #with
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A set of stairs may have never caused so much trouble in an aircraft.
First introduced in West Germany as a short-hop commuter jet in the early Cold War, the Boeing 737-100 had folding metal stairs attached to the fuselage that passengers climbed to board before airports had jetways. Ground crews hand-lifted heavy luggage into the cargo holds in those days, long before motorized belt loaders were widely available.
That low-to-the-ground design was a plus in 1968, but it has proved to be a constraint that engineers modernizing the 737 have had to work around ever since. The compromises required to push forward a more fuel-efficient version of the plane — with larger engines and altered aerodynamics — led to the complex flight control software system that is now under investigation in two fatal crashes over the last five months.
Boeing’s problems deepened Thursday, when the company announced it was stopping delivery of the aircraft after the Federal Aviation Administration’s decision Wednesday to ground the aircraft.
“We continue to build 737 Max airplanes, while assessing how the situation, including potential capacity constraints, will impact our production system,” the Chicago company said in a statement.
The crisis comes after 50 years of remarkable success in making the 737 a profitable workhorse. Today, the aerospace giant has a massive backlog of more than 4,700 orders for the jetliner and its sales account for nearly a third of Boeing’s profit.
But the decision to continue modernizing the jet, rather than starting at some point with a clean design, resulted in engineering challenges that created unforeseen risks.
(Lorena Elebee / Los Angeles Times)
“Boeing has to sit down and ask itself how long they can keep updating this airplane," said Douglas Moss, an instructor at USCʼs Viterbi Aviation Safety and Security Program, a former United Airlines captain, an attorney and a former Air Force test pilot. "We are getting to the point where legacy features are such a drag on the airplane that we have to go to a clean-sheet airplane."
Few, if any, complex products designed in the 1960s are still manufactured today. The IBM 360 mainframe computer was put out to pasture decades ago. The Apollo spacecraft is revered history. The Buick Electra 225 is long gone. And Western Electric dial telephones are seen only in classic movies.
Today’s 737 is a substantially different system from the original. Boeing strengthened its wings, developed new assembly technologies and put in modern cockpit electronics. The changes allowed the 737 to outlive both the Boeing 757 and 767, which were developed decades later and then retired.
Over the years, the FAA has implemented new and tougher design requirements, but a derivative gets many of the designs grandfathered in, Moss said.
“It is cheaper and easier to do a derivative than a new aircraft,” said Robert Ditchey, an engineer, aviation safety consultant and founder of America West Airlines, which purchased some of the early 737 models. “It is easier to certificate it.”
But some aspects of the legacy 737 design are vintage headaches, such as the ground clearance designed to allow a staircase that’s now obsolete. “They wanted it close to the ground for boarding,” Ditchey said.
Andrew Skow, founder of Tiger Century Aircraft, which develops cockpit safety systems, and a former Northrop Grumman chief engineer, said Boeing has had a good record modernizing the 737. But he said, “They may have pushed it too far.”
Forensics experts comb through the dirt for debris at the crash site of the Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 737 Max aircraft.
Forensics experts comb through the dirt for debris at the crash site of the Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 737 Max aircraft. (Tony Karumba / AFP / Getty Images)
To handle a longer fuselage and more passengers, Boeing added larger, more powerful engines, but that required it to reposition them to maintain ground clearance. As a result, the 737 can pitch up under certain circumstances. Software, known as the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, was added to counteract that tendency.
The software erroneously thought the aircraft was at risk of losing lift and stalling — because of a malfunctioning sensor — and ordered the stabilizer at the rear to put it into a series of sharp dives that ultimately caused the plane to crash into the Java Sea.
What happened on the Ethiopian Airlines flight is less clear, but tracking data show that it also encountered sharp changes in its vertical velocity and at one point in its climb after takeoff lost 400 feet of altitude. The FAA grounded the jetliner Wednesday, saying that new satellite data showed the Ethiopian Airlines flight dynamics were “very close” to those of the Lion Air jet.
Ethiopia sent “black box” recording devices recovered from the crashed jet to France for analysis, after refusing to hand them over to U.S. authorities. The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board still plans to send investigators to France to help its Bureau of Inquiry and Analysis for Civil Aviation Safety.
Airline crashes seldom are caused by a single factor, and the two 737 accidents may yet involve poor maintenance, pilot errors and inadequate training. But it appears increasingly likely that Boeing’s software system and the company’s lack of recommendations for pilot training on it may have played an important role in the crashes.
The entire need for the software system is fundamental to the jet’s history.
The bottom of the 737’s engines are a minimum of 17 inches above the runway. By comparison, the Boeing 757 has a minimum clearance of 29 inches, according to Boeing specification books. The newer 787 Dreamliner has 28 inches or 29 inches, depending on the engine.
The 737 originally was equipped with the Pratt & Whitney JT-8 series jets, which had an inner fan diameter of 49.2 inches. “They looked like cigars, long and skinny,” Moss said.
By comparison, the LEAP-1b engines on the Max 8 have a diameter of 69 inches, nearly 20 inches more than the original. There wouldn’t be enough clearance without some kind of modification.
In the 737-300, which came after the original planes sold in West Germany, Boeing came up with an unusual fix: It created a flat bottom on the nacelle (the shroud around the fan), creating what pilots came to call the "hamster pouch.”
“They made it work,” said Ditchey, whose America West was one of the original customers of the 737-300.
But the LEAP engines required an even bigger change. Boeing redesigned the pylons, the structure that holds the engine to the wing, extending them farther forward and higher up. It gave the needed 17 inches of clearance. The company also put in a higher nose landing gear.
The change, however, affected the plane’s aerodynamics. Boeing discovered the new position of the engines increased the lift of the aircraft, creating a tendency for the nose to pitch up.
(Shaffer Grubb, Lorena Elebee / Los Angeles Times)
The solution was MCAS, which ordered the stabilizer to push down the nose if the “angle of attack” — or angle that air flows over the wings — got too high. The MCAS depends on data from two sensors. But on the Lion Air flight, the MCAS relied on a sensor that was erroneously reporting a high angle of attack when the plane was nowhere near a stall.
The pilots tried to counteract the nose-down movements by pulling back on the yoke. But even pulling with all their might they could not counteract the forces, according to data in a preliminary accident investigation report.
Skow criticized Boeing’s MCAS system, saying it acted only on the basis of angle of attack. The Lion Air jet was traveling so fast that when MCAS ordered the stabilizer to pitch the nose down it was a violent reaction. The software should have factored in air speed, he said, which would have better calibrated the pilots’ reaction.
Skow’s firm has developed a cockpit display system, known as Q-Alfa, which he says would have identified the failure of the angle of attack sensor and allowed the crew to abort the takeoff. “We believe we could have prevented the accident,” he said.
If the results of the investigation do not undermine the fundamental design of the aircraft, then the 737 Max’s future may not be in peril, aviation experts said. It may turn out all that’s needed is a software fix or additional pilot training.
The 737 has survived other crises. In a 1988 accident on a flight between Honolulu and Hilo, the entire top of the plane came off in an explosive decompression. A flight attendant was sucked out and 65 passengers and crew were injured. It was blamed on faulty lap joints in the aluminum skin of the fuselage, which Boeing reengineered.
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Article word count: 16
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19411998
Posted by homarp (karma: 2083)
Post stats: Points: 130 - Comments: 49 - 2019-03-17T03:15:01Z
#HackerNews #2016 #and #associations #carbon #cognitive #dioxide #function #ventilation #with
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Common Lisp editor/IDE with high expansibility. Contribute to cxxxr/lem development by creating an account on GitHub.
Article word count: 34
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19407548
Posted by lelf (karma: 39035)
Post stats: Points: 107 - Comments: 55 - 2019-03-16T12:49:13Z
#HackerNews #common #editor #expansibility #high #ide #lem #lisp #with
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Hello, HN! We're Michael and Liana, co-founders of Bottomless (https://bottomless.com)
Bottomless automatically re-stocks coffee using a smart scale. Users leave their coffee on the scale, then we detect the perfect time to trigger re-orders. We ship the scale for free when customers buy their first bag.
We met in college, and bonded over talking about businesses we could build together. You could say we've kept in touch since then: we're now married. Bottomless was born out of our frustration managing our household stock levels. We always seemed to be running out of one thing or another.
When we thought about it, we realized that restocking was a universal problem.
But if this was such a big problem, why was there no great solution? Subscriptions should be a solution, but they don’t work well for items that aren’t used on a set schedule. It seemed that if we could capture data on usage and stock levels in a passive way, we could solve the problem. Thus, Bottomless, the concept, was born.
The market for stuff people repeatedly buy is enormous. (We'll leave an exact estimate up to the reader's imagination.) We decided that to start we'd establish a beachhead with a single market. We landed on selling premium coffee because it's cheap to ship and has good margins. It also is much better shipped straight from the roaster than bought at the grocery store.
In the beginning, we built the simplest thing possible to test if the concept would work. We hacked together a scale prototype, made five of them and got them into the hands of friends. We bought coffee from roaster websites with our customers’ addresses to bootstrap supply.
The goal was to test if people would leave their coffee on a scale, and if we could reorder at the right time. It turns out they would and we could!
Since then, it's been a matter of making larger batches of scales. We bought a few 3D printers and acquired quite a few burned fingers from soldering.
We've benefited from a few technological tailwinds. For one, smartphone supply chain has driven down the cost of components quite a bit. We've been able to build hardware that works for this business model out of super cheap WiFi modules and LiPos. Also, the level of open source software for ML is quite powerful and well-documented.
We're aware that we are just scratching the surface of re-ordering hardware. We'd be interested to hear ideas that the community might have about this space!
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19403664
Posted by seizethecheese (karma: 1803)
Post stats: Points: 84 - Comments: 157 - 2019-03-15T20:02:13Z
#HackerNews #bottomless #coffee #launch #restocked #scale #smart #w19 #with
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