Items tagged with: quality
Have you ever been interested in monitoring the air quality in your home or outside where you live and work? This project, which we’ve dubbed balenaSense, will get you up and running with a setup to…
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19506983
Posted by alexandros (karma: 11809)
Post stats: Points: 137 - Comments: 43 - 2019-03-27T22:46:24Z
#HackerNews #air #and #build #docker #grafana #influxdb #monitor #quality #raspberry #with
Have you ever been interested in monitoring the air quality in your home or outside where you live and work? This project, which we’ve dubbed balenaSense, will get you up and running with a setup to take readings of temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, and air quality, and provide a dashboard that you can access from anywhere to see the stats at a glance and monitor trends.
Table of contents
Building an air quality & weather station used to involve a lot of wiring and different sensors, but with the advent of sensors that combine all the readings into one component on a nice little breakout board, it’s easy to get started.
We’re going to look at monitoring temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and air quality using an all-in-one sensor that connects directly to a Raspberry Pi with no additional components required. You don’t need any experience in electronics but a soldering iron would be handy (although not required). This project implements a database to store historic readings along with a graphical interface to see current readings and trends at a glance.
Here’s the shopping list for this project. Depending if you’d like to crack out the soldering iron or not will dictate what sensor board you can use; some are plug and play, some require a little soldering.
I donʼt want to solder
If you donʼt want to solder, youʼll need:
I want to solder - let me at it!
If youʼre happy doing a little soldering, youʼll need:
If you already have one, this project also supports the use of the Sense HAT, with the added bonus that youʼll get a smiley face showing on the LED matrix (depending on the air quality, of course)!
You can get hold of the Bosch BME680 sensor on a breakout board from a variety of vendors too, all at varying costs.
Note: The Pimoroni breakout board is the one we’ve used in this article; this board has the added benefit that the pins are broken out in the correct order to just plug straight into the Raspberry Pi GPIO header. When using other boards you’ll need to be careful to ensure the pins for power, ground and the I2C bus (SDA and SCL) are matched - this is explained further on in the guide.
We’ve set up the balena-sense project on GitHub which contains all of the software, configuration and code you’ll need to start taking readings straight away. We’re going to deploy this project on balenaCloud using a free account to push the project and all the software to your Raspberry Pi as well as to provide remote access. Therefore, you’ll need:
Putting the hardware together
You’ve got very little to do on the hardware front for this project; our goal here is to connect the sensor board you purchased to the Raspberry Pi general purpose input/output (GPIO) header.
The BME680 sensor communicates with the Raspberry Pi over a bus called I2C (eye-squared-see), which is a serial communication bus that requires 2 wires. These two communication wires are referred to as serial clock (SCK) and serial data (SDA). In addition to the two communication wires, we also need to provide the sensor with power (3.3V, or 3V3) and ground.
If you went for the solder-free option from Pimoroni or Sparkfun, or are using the Sense HAT, you’ll just have to plug your shiny new components together along with your Raspberry Pi, and all of the connections will be made for you - go forth, to the next step!
If you decided to connect a sensor directly to your Raspberry Pi, either the Pimoroni one or any one of the other breakout boards from one of the other suppliers, the main things to watch out for are that the pins described above (SDA, SCK, 3V3 and GND) are correctly connected.
A useful site for working with the GPIO header on your Raspberry Pi is pinout.xyz; it clearly shows us that the pins we need are 1 (3V3 power), 3 (SDA), 5 (SCL), and 9 (Ground). The 40 pin GPIO header is standard across the Pi 2 and later. You’ll notice that if you’re using the Pimoroni board and solder on the included header, the pins are in exactly the right order to connect the boards together. Notice how the writing on the board matches the pins in the pinout diagram above.
However, if you connect the sensor like this you may find the readings are affected by the heat from the Raspberry Pi CPU; more accurate readings can be taken by extending the sensor away from the board, which can be achieved using male-to-female Dupont cables (or Jumper Jerky), as below:
Similarly, if you’re using one of the other sensors where the pinout diagrams do not match exactly, you can connect these boards to your Pi using the same method, ensuring that you match up 3V3, SDA, SCL, and GND. Your board may also have pins for SDI, SDO, CS - you can ignore these and leave them unconnected as they’re used for an alternative serial peripheral interface (SPI) to the sensor which we’re not using in this project.
In the photos above we’re using a Raspberry Pi 3A+, but you can use a Pi Zero as pictured at the start of the guide for a lower cost solution.
Setting up the Raspberry Pi
We’re going to flash an SD card with balenaOS via a download from the balenaCloud dashboard and add the device in order to push the project, and set things up in such a way it can easily be updated later.
The first thing to do is to get set up with a balenaCloud account; this means signing up if you haven’t already, adding an application and adding a device.
Step 1 - Sign up to balenaCloud
The first thing you’ll need to do is sign up for an account. If you’ve already got a GitHub or Google account you can use that to login and bypass the signup process.
Sign up here
Step 2 - Create an application
Add an application selecting the correct device type for the device you’re using, and choosing Starter as the application type, then hit Create New Application. Using the starter application will provide you with all of the features of the microservices application and is free up to and including your tenth device.
This will take you to the dashboard for your newly created application, where you can move on to the next step and add your device. The name you give your application is up to you, but youʼll need it later on in the guide when you push your code.
Step 3 - Add a device and download the OS
Once your application has been created, you can setup and add a device within that application by clicking the green ʼadd deviceʼ button. When you add a device you specify your device type, which is important that it matches the device you’re using, and if you are connecting to a wireless network you can set your WiFI SSID and passphrase here too.
This process creates a customized image configured for your application and device type and includes your network settings if you specified them.
Note: When youʼre first getting started, a development image will be most useful, as it permits a number of testing and troubleshooting features. More details on the differences between development and production images can be found here. If youʼre confident you can go ahead and deploy the production image straight away -- thatʼs what Iʼm running.
Step 4 - Flash your SD card and boot the device
Once the OS image has been downloaded, it’s time to flash your SD card. You can use balenaEtcher for this.
Once the flashing process has completed, insert your SD card into the Raspberry Pi and connect the power supply.
When the device boots for the first time, it connects to the balenaCloud dashboard, after which you’ll be able to see it listed as online and move onto the next step.
Troubleshooting: It should only take a few minutes for the new device to appear in your dashboard, If your device still hasnʼt shown up on your dashboard after a few minutes, something has gone wrong. Thereʼs an extensive troubleshooting guide in the documentation, with lots of information on why this could be, but if you still canʼt get your device online, come on over to the forums where we’ll be able to help out.
Deploying the software
Now that your Raspberry Pi has been provisioned, has booted, and connected to balenaCloud, youʼre ready to push the application code to the device.
Installing the balena CLI tools
If you already have (or can setup) npm on your machine, this is most likely the easiest way to get the CLI tools up and running quickly. However, there are also standalone binaries for Windows, macOS and Linux available. Note: if youʼve already installed these tools to complete another of our projects, you donʼt need to do this part again - skip directly to the next step.
The documentation for the CLI tools is the best place to start and covers the installation and setup of both the npm package and the standalone binaries.
When you have the CLI installed and working, the first step is to login to balenaCloud by issuing the balena login command:
Once you’ve reached this point, and have a working CLI which has been logged in to your account, youʼre ready to start pushing code to your Raspberry Pi.
Downloading the project from GitHub
The next step is to download the code for this project from GitHub. Go to: https://github.com/balena-io-projects/balena-sense/ and download the project.
The blue button will download a .zip file of the project which youʼll need to unzip, but if youʼre already familiar with Git you can use git clone in the normal way.
Pushing the project code to your Raspberry Pi
As you have the CLI setup and the latest code downloaded, you can now execute a single command to push that code to balenaCloud which in turn builds the Docker image and handles the process of setting it up and running it on your device.
From within the unzipped project directory, execute balena push , where appName is the application name you set back at the beginning of the guide. For example: balena push balenaSense.
If everything worked out correctly, after a few minutes your device information screen in the dashboard should look something like this, showing the services running, one for each of the software components.
When you push the code for the first time it can take a few minutes to download (dependant on your internet connection speed) but after that, only the changes in the container are downloaded so things happen much quicker.
Note: that when the application first starts (and youʼre using the BME680 rather than the Sense HAT) the sensor performs a ‘burn-in’ over a 5-minute period. Readings will not be taken and readings not inserted into the database during this period. The application will log a countdown, which you can see within the balenaCloud dashboard as per the below screenshot:
After the countdown has reached zero, you’ll see a message that says ‘Starting loop…` and readings will now be taken and inserted into the database every 10 seconds.
Viewing the dashboard
Hopefully you got your device flashed, connected to your network and up and running without too much trouble. One of the great benefits of using a free balenaCloud account is that you’re able to use the Public Device URL feature.
Enable this toggle on your device and click the blue arrow to access the dashboard; you can share this link or bookmark it for use from your phone or another mobile device. As long as your balenaSense device is online and working, you’ll be able to access your dashboard from anywhere!
If you don’t want to enable the public device access, you can still view the dashboard from within your own local network by using the IP address value from the image above. Yours will be different, but if you enter http:// into a browser, you’ll still be able to access the dashboard as long as you’re on the same network as the device. For example, to access my device I would use http://10.1.231.36.
If youʼd like to log in to Grafana and start playing with the settings, the default credentials are admin and admin.
How does it work?
This project has 3 main components, which are separated into 3 services. These are the names of the services you’ll see on your balenaCloud dashboard:
* InfluxDB - A database, used for storing sensor readings * Sensor - The Python library and code for accessing the sensor, taking readings and saving them in the database * Grafana - Used for creating a dashboard with graphs & reports
The BME680 sensor from Bosch gives us readings for temperature, humidity, pressure and a gas content reading provided in terms of resistance. The sensors for temperature, humidity, and pressure give us useful readings out of the box, but the gas resistance reading on its own is not a lot of use. It gives us an indication of the change in compounds in the air, so when the sensor application starts, it sets a baseline and monitors change. The indicative air quality reading is given in percentage and takes into account the effect of humidity and gas reading.
If youʼre using the Sense HAT, which doesnʼt have a gas sensor, weʼve approximated the air quality reading using target values for temperature and humidity.
So by now hopefully you’ve got the project fully up and running, have accessed the dashboard and have been taking readings and filling up your database. Here are a few more things to take a look at before you move on to the next project.
Change the password
If you’re leaving your device publically accessible, it’s a good idea to change the password for Grafana.
We’ve set the system up with a default username and password of admin and admin. You can change this by logging into Grafana using the button in the lower left corner of the dashboard; you’ll be prompted to change it upon first login.
The dashboard & reporting software we’re using, Grafana, has a lot of configuration options and settings for you to play with. We’ve set up a basic dashboard that gives you a gauge and a graph for each of the 4 readings that we’re taking.
You can customize each panel on Grafana after you’ve logged in by hovering over the title and going to edit. I recommend having a play with the options - the changes to your dashboard are not saved automatically so if you make a mistake you can reload the page and everything will revert to how it was. If you make some changes you want to keep, hit save at the top of the dashboard and all of your settings will be saved to your device.
You can customize the gauges too; for example on the pressure gauge, we’ve set up some basic bands and text values to replace the numbers. You’re free to edit all these to whatever works for you!
Build a housing
Sensors like this ideally like to be housed in a radiation shield (sometimes called a Stevenson Screen), to prevent sunlight and radiated heat affecting the readings. If you’re monitoring the environment indoors, it isn’t quite so critical, but if you’re monitoring outdoors, positioning and protecting the sensor is important to get accurate readings.
Commercial radiation shields are available, such as this one from Davis, but can be quite expensive, so there are DIY options around too.
There are a few different options for BME680 housings and Stevenson screens on Thingiverse; take a look and see if any of the designs will work for your application.
Thanks for reading! If you decided to build your own air quality monitor, we’d love to hear how it went, similarly if you got stuck, have any questions or just have some suggestions for future development of the project, let us know in our forums at https://forums.balena.io, on Twitter @balena_io, on Instagram @balena_io or on Facebook.
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From Mumble Wiki Mumble is an open source, low-latency, high quality voice chat software primarily intended for use while gaming.
Article word count: 20
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19492731
Posted by LinuxBender (karma: 5636)
Post stats: Points: 308 - Comments: 144 - 2019-03-26T15:31:20Z
#HackerNews #chat #high #latency #low #mumble #open #quality #software #source #voice
From Mumble Wiki
Mumble is an open source, low-latency, high quality voice chat software primarily intended for use while gaming.
HackerNewsBot debug: Calculated post rank: 253 - Loop: 381 - Rank min: 100 - Author rank: 22
Life expectancy at birth (years)iLife expectancy at age 60 (years)iHealthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth (years)iHealthy life expectancy (HALE) at age 60 (years)iCountryYearBoth sexesMaleFemaleBoth sexesMaleFemaleBoth sexesMaleFemaleBoth sexesMaleFemaleCuba201679.0i76.8i81.3i22.7i21.2i24.2i69.968.471.417.716.718.8France201682.9i80.1i85.7i25.9i23.8i27.9i73.471.874.920.619.121.9Germany201681.0i78.7i83.3i23.6i21.8i25.3i71.670.273.018.617.319.8Greece201681.2i78.7i83.7i23.9i22.1i25.5i72.070.573.618.817.520.1Italy201682.8i80.5i84.9i25.0i23.2i26.6i73.272.074.319.918.621.0UK201681.4i79.7i83.2i24.2i23.0i25.5i71.970.972.919.218.320.1USA201678.5i76.0i81.0i23.3i21.8i24.7i68.566.970.117.916.719.0src: http://apps.who.int/gho/athena/data/GHO/WHOSIS_000001,WHOSIS_000015,WHOSIS_000002,WHOSIS_000007?profile=xtab&format=html&x-topaxis=GHO;SEX&x-sideaxis=COUNTRY;YEAR&x-title=table&filter=COUNTRY:*
About the Cuban healthcare system
Cuba’s HealthSystem: a lot of prevention cheap and efficient
Healthcare in Cuba: In Spite of Underfunding Surprisingly Efficient
Contrary to what you might expect Cuba has an extensive public healthcare system, to which all citizens enjoy equal access.
Particularly in the 1980s, Cuba’s healthcare system underwent several reforms and redevelopment.
This is one of the reasons why, according to the WHO, Cubans not only have the highest life expectancy in the geographical region, but also place among the top five highest in the world.
Indeed, in 2014, the country was praised by Margaret Chan, Director-General of the WHO, as a world leader in the medical sphere, for not only the extent and quality of its care but also for the systems strong link with research and innovation.
As mentioned above, the public healthcare system in Cuba covers all citizens.
Private hospitals, doctor’s practices, and other private medical facilities do not exist.
Instead, all health-related facilities and services are run by the government.
Universal vaccinations and other universal programs have almost eradicated diseases like polio, rubella, tuberculosis, or chicken pox.
Furthermore, the small budget means that Cuba had to invent a unique approach to healthcare.
It consists of compulsory health checks in order to put an emphasis on prevention.
In fact, preventing a disease, or catching it at an early phase, is less expensive for the public healthcare system.
This means that every Cuban has at least one annual health check-up, which often is done at home by local doctors or nurses.
For decades, Cuba has been known to have a large staff of well-trained medical specialists at hand.
The research sector is strong as well, particularly in the field of biotechnology or epidemiological studies on chronic diseases.
An example of their achievements is that Cuba became the first country in the world to receive WHO validation that it successfully eliminated mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and HIV.
For years, medical tourism has played an important role in the Cuban economy.
Brought to the fore in news media by former football star Diego Maradona’s drug rehabilitation in 2000, an ever-increasing amount of foreigners arrive on Cuban soil to take advantage of the medical service, both vital and cosmetic.
More than 2.8 million tourists traveled to Cuba in 2012.
Although no solid figures can be provided for how many went for medical reasons, there are at least several thousand that did so just for this reason.
Not only do many hospitals have special divisions and trained staff to serve the needs of foreign patients, but the government recently created Servimed, alongside CSMC, with the charge of promoting medical services to foreigners.
Since 2010, tourists and expats are obligated to secure health insurance which is valid for their stay in Cuba and approved by the Cuban government.
However, even if you are covered, you need to keep in mind that medical facilities do not accept checks or credit cards.
So make sure to bring enough cash when you visit a hospital or clinic.
Some Issues Remain in the Healthcare System
The fall of the socialist bloc and the tightening of the US embargo in the early 90s put a strain on Cuba’s economy.
Its healthcare system threatened to collapse as the budget for medicine and medical equipment shrunk by 70%.
However, the health of Cuba’s population remained stable.
This is due to the fact that healthcare remained a high priority for the government.
Today, the lack of medical equipment still takes a toll on medical care.
Particularly the specialized medical fields were harmed in the 1990s, when special equipment and medication was scarce and hard to come by.
Although, medical professionals were widely available, they could not make up for the dire condition of Cuba’s healthcare facilities.
In 2004, Cuba’s government implemented a national program to renew the country’s 444 polyclinics.
They even chose 52 hospitals and tertiary institutes to be remodeled to become “centers of excellence”.
The first of these centers were completed in 2006.
However, there are more to come, and Cuba still has a long way to go in living up to its reputation of having one of the best healthcare systems.
Education in Cuba: Public, Free, and Well-Funded
Ever since the Cuban revolution in the 1950s, the country’s education system has fundamentally improved.
UNESCO rates Cuba as the best education system in Latin America, despite being one of the less developed countries in the region.
However, this is unsurprising, as, alongside the medical sector, the education sector lies at the center of the government ethos and it invests 13% of its GDP there (as of 2014).
As is the case with healthcare in Cuba, education is public and free for all citizens and literacy is at 99.8%.
Before the big changes the revolution brought, it was particularly the rural population which did not have access to basic education.
Today, a large school network provides education in all corners of the Cuban island.
Keep in mind that, because educational facilities are usually run by the government, international and private education is extremely scarce.
There are very few international schools in Cuba: among them, the International School of Havana and the École Française de La Havana.
They are very expensive (the tuition fee is 12,600 USD and 9320 USD for grades 11 and 12, respectively), so if you are unable to send your children to one of these schools, you should consider arranging for Spanish lessons in order to prepare them for the local schools.
As for university education, the government is planning to implement education reforms in 2016-2017.
Their reforms’ objective is to improve undergraduate studies, which are deemed to take too long.
They will be shortened to four years, as in a lot of other countries. The other objective is to test the students for their English language skills before graduating. In fact, a lot of Cuban professionals are not able to speak English fluently.
We do our best to keep this article up to date. However, we cannot guarantee that the information provided is always current or complete.
Kuba’s Gesundheitssystem: Viel Prävention! Günstig und Effizient
Gesundheitswesen in Kuba: trotz Unterfinanzierung Überraschend Effizient
Im Gegensatz zu dem, was man erwarten könnte, verfügt Kuba über ein umfassendes öffentliches Gesundheitssystem, zu dem alle Bürger gleichberechtigten Zugang haben.
Insbesondere in den 1980er Jahren wurde das Gesundheitssystem Kubas mehrfach reformiert und saniert.
Dies ist einer der Gründe, warum Kubaner laut WHO nicht nur die höchste Lebenserwartung in der geografischen region haben, sondern auch zu den Top fünf der höchsten der Welt gehören.
In der Tat wurde das Land 2014 von Margaret Chan, Generaldirektorin der WHO, als weltmarktführerin im medizinischen Bereich, nicht nur für das Ausmaß und die Qualität Ihrer Versorgung, sondern auch für die starke Verbindung der Systeme mit Forschung und innovation gelobt.
Wie bereits erwähnt, deckt das öffentliche Gesundheitssystem in Kuba alle Bürger ab.
Private Krankenhäuser, Arztpraxen und andere private medizinische Einrichtungen existieren nicht.
Stattdessen werden alle gesundheitsbezogenen Einrichtungen und Dienste von der Regierung betrieben.
Universelle Impfungen und andere Universelle Programme haben Krankheiten wie polio, Röteln, Tuberkulose oder Windpocken fast ausgerottet.
Darüber hinaus bedeutet das geringe budget, dass Kuba einen einzigartigen Ansatz für die Gesundheitsversorgung erfinden musste.
Es besteht aus obligatorischen Gesundheitskontrollen, um den Schwerpunkt auf Prävention zu legen.
Tatsächlich ist die Vorbeugung oder frühzeitige Behandlung einer Krankheit für das öffentliche Gesundheitssystem kostengünstiger.
Dies bedeutet, dass jeder Kubaner mindestens einen jährlichen Gesundheitscheck hat, der oft zu Hause von lokalen ärzten oder Krankenschwestern durchgeführt wird.
Seit Jahrzehnten ist Kuba bekannt, ein großes Personal von gut ausgebildeten Fachärzten zur hand zu haben.
Auch der forschungssektor ist stark, insbesondere im Bereich der Biotechnologie oder epidemiologischer Studien zu chronischen Krankheiten.
Ein Beispiel für Ihre Leistungen ist, dass Kuba das erste Land der Welt wurde, das DIE who-Validierung erhielt, dass es die übertragung von syphilis und HIV von Mutter zu Kind erfolgreich beseitigte.
Seit Jahren spielt der Medizintourismus eine wichtige Rolle in der kubanischen Wirtschaft.
In den Nachrichtenmedien von Diego Maradonas ehemaligem Fußballstar, der im Jahr 2000 Drogen rehabilitiert hat, kommen immer mehr Ausländer auf kubanischem Boden an, um den medizinischen und kosmetischen Dienst zu nutzen.
Mehr als 2,8 Millionen Touristen reisten 2012 nach Kuba.
Obwohl es keine soliden zahlen dafür gibt, wie viele aus medizinischen Gründen gegangen sind, gibt es mindestens mehrere tausend, die dies nur aus diesem Grund getan haben.
Viele Krankenhäuser verfügen nicht nur über spezielle Abteilungen und geschultes Personal, um den Bedürfnissen ausländischer Patienten zu dienen, sondern die Regierung hat kürzlich Servimed zusammen mit CSMC mit der Aufgabe geschaffen, medizinische Dienstleistungen für Ausländer zu fördern.
Seit 2010 sind Touristen und expats verpflichtet, eine Krankenversicherung abzuschließen, die für Ihren Aufenthalt in Kuba gültig und von der kubanischen Regierung genehmigt ist.
Aber auch wenn Sie versichert sind, müssen Sie Bedenken, dass medizinische Einrichtungen keine Schecks oder Kreditkarten akzeptieren.
So stellen Sie sicher, genug Geld zu bringen, wenn Sie ein Krankenhaus oder eine Klinik besuchen.
Einige Probleme Bleiben im Gesundheitswesen:
Der fall des sozialistischen Blocks und die Verschärfung des US-Embargos Anfang der 90er Jahre belasteten Kubas Wirtschaft.
Sein Gesundheitssystem drohte zu kollabieren, da das budget für Medizin und medizinische Geräte um 70% schrumpfte.
Die Gesundheit der kubanischen Bevölkerung blieb jedoch stabil. Dies ist darauf zurückzuführen, dass die Gesundheitsversorgung weiterhin eine hohe Priorität für die Regierung blieb.
Heute ist der Mangel an medizinischen Geräten immer noch eine Maut auf die medizinische Versorgung. Besonders die medizinischen Fachgebiete wurden in den 1990er Jahren geschädigt, als spezielle Geräte und Medikamente knapp und schwer zu bekommen waren. Obwohl medizinische Fachkräfte weit verbreitet waren, konnten Sie den schlimmen Zustand der kubanischen Gesundheitseinrichtungen nicht ausgleichen.
Im Jahr 2004 führte Kubas Regierung ein Nationales Programm zur Erneuerung der 444 Polikliniken des Landes durch. Sie wählten sogar 52 Krankenhäuser und tertiäre Institute, die zu “centers of excellence”umgebaut werden sollten. Das erste dieser Zentren wurde 2006 fertiggestellt. Allerdings gibt es noch mehr zu kommen, und Kuba hat noch einen langen Weg in Leben bis zu seinem Ruf, eines der besten Gesundheitssysteme zu gehen.
Bildung in Kuba: Öffentlich, Kostenlos und gut Finanziert
Seit der kubanischen revolution in den 1950er Jahren hat sich das Bildungssystem des Landes grundlegend verbessert. UNESCO bewertet Kuba als das beste Bildungssystem in Lateinamerika, obwohl es eines der weniger entwickelten Länder in der region ist.
Dies ist jedoch nicht überraschend, da neben dem medizinischen Sektor der Bildungssektor im Zentrum des regierungsethos steht und dort 13% seines BIP investiert (ab 2014). Wie bei der Gesundheitsversorgung in Kuba ist Bildung für alle Bürger öffentlich und kostenlos und die Alphabetisierung liegt bei 99,8%.
Vor den großen Veränderungen, die die revolution mit sich brachte, war es vor allem die ländliche Bevölkerung, die keinen Zugang zur Grundbildung hatte. Heute bietet ein großes Schulnetzwerk Bildung in allen Ecken der kubanischen Insel.
Denken Sie daran, dass, weil Bildungseinrichtungen sind in der Regel von der Regierung laufen, internationale und private Bildung ist extrem knapp. Es gibt nur sehr wenige internationale Schulen in Kuba: darunter die International School of Havana und die École Française de la Havana. Wenn Sie also nicht in der Lage sind, Ihre Kinder an eine dieser Schulen zu schicken, sollten Sie erwägen, Spanischunterricht zu organisieren, um Sie auf die lokalen Schulen vorzubereiten.
Was die Hochschulbildung betrifft, plant die Regierung, Bildungsreformen in 2016-2017 umzusetzen. Ihre Reformen Zielen darauf ab, das Grundstudium zu verbessern, was als zu lang angesehen wird. Sie werden wie in vielen anderen Ländern auf vier Jahre verkürzt. Das andere Ziel ist es, die Schüler für Ihre Englischkenntnisse vor dem Abschluss zu testen. In der Tat sind viele kubanische Profis nicht in der Lage, fließend Englisch zu sprechen.
Wir tun unser bestes, um diesen Artikel auf dem Laufenden zu halten. Wir können jedoch nicht garantieren, dass die bereitgestellten Informationen immer aktuell oder vollständig sind.
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#money #alternative #reform #systems #vollgeld #bge #altcoopsys #alternatives #alternativgeld #OsOfSociety #OperatingSystemsOfSociety #SystemPhilosophy #dinero #dollar #euro #yen #rubel #sustainability #resilience #complementary #complementarycurrency #cooperation #monetaryreform #financialreform #financialsystemreform #financialcrisis #mortagecrisis #debtcrisis #suprimecrisis #occupywallsreet #occupyfrankfurt #finance #geldsystem #geldreform #moneysystem #financialsystem #economics #ecologicaleconomics #economy #capitalism #kapitalismus #system #health #healthcare #life #lifeexpectancy #quality #qualityoflife #cuba #usa #uk #germany #france #greece #italy #prevention
Originally posted at: https://altcoopsys.org/2019/02/09/cubas-healthcare-system-governmental-free-for-all-prevention-is-cheaper-efficient-who-2016-data-life-expectancy-in-cuba-better-than-usa-uk-france-germany/
#Poland confesses it's delivered rotten meat, voluntarily withdrew it
"Our neighbors were asking about details of actions we have taken. I have convinced most of the countries that this situation in Poland was an individual case," Niemczuk said. "The produce is being voluntarily withdrawn."
The Czech Republic announced this week it was stepping up its controls on beef imported from Poland.
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The Cleveland Museum of Art is one of the most visited art museums in the world, and soon it will become one of the most important online collections as well. Today, we are announcing a release of 30,000 high quality, free and open digital images from the museum’s collection under CC0 and available via their API. CC0 allows anyone to use, re-use, and remix a work without restriction.
The Cleveland Museum of Art is one of the most visited art museums in the world, and soon it will become one of the most important online collections as well. Today, we are announcing a release of 30,000 high quality, free and open digital images from the museum’s collection under CC0 and available via their API. CC0 allows anyone to use, re-use, and remix a work without restriction.
Our youth are growing up in a virtual world. What can be done to re-introduce them to the real world? Unplug and calendar up some real activity.
Article word count: 2121
HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=18980954
Posted by technologyvault (karma: 571)
Post stats: Points: 124 - Comments: 106 - 2019-01-23T18:23:02Z
\#HackerNews #alarming #decline #playtime #quality #youth
What are your kids going to do after school today? More homework? Hopefully not too much of that. What I mean is after they’ve finished their homework? Do they have time to play? If so, what kind of things will they be doing? Does it really matter? Does this video change your mind?
I suspect that the hit Netflix show, Stranger Things, resonated with so many adults for one primary reason: it brought them back to the carefree and wonder-filled days of youth back in the 80’s. I know that is exactly what I liked so much about the show. The story line itself was a bit “meh” in my opinion. But the characters, the bike riding, the exploring through the forests surrounding their town, the Dungeons and Dragons sessions, and the general running around and getting into trouble with friends is what made it such a fun show for me. (Disclaimer: I would definitely recommend watching it using a filtering service like VidAngel as the language and some of the content is definitely not family friendly!)
In case you’re not in a position to watch the above video presently, I’ll describe it briefly. An interviewer asks three generations what they did to play when they were growing up. The oldest generation talks about being outside, picking blueberries, growing watermelons, sledding down snow-covered hills, and more. The middle generation related that they did much of the same, including running from door to door, gathering friends and playing street games or night games.
The shocking part comes when the youngest generation in this video is asked the same questions. The discussion almost completely revolves around electronic devices and video games. One child states, “I’d die without my tablet.” Another child explains that he only feels normal when he’s playing video games. The same boy boasts that he watched 23 episodes of a TV series in less than 4 days.
Who is to Blame for Kids’ Technology Addictions?
It’s easy to shake our heads when watching this video and think to ourselves “Geez! Kids today! What is wrong with them?” I know that is frequently my first reaction. However, I’ve thought about this a lot over the years, and I really do think that it’s quite a bit more complex than just blaming kids for being lazy.
The Parent’s Role
Let’s face it, we’ve heard a lot about “helicopter parents” over the last few years. And even though it’s hard to admit, most of us have allowed ourselves to become overly protective parents to a great extent. Still, there are many factors out there that contribute to this technology crisis that faces this rising generation. But ultimately, we are in control of what our children are exposed to and what activities they engage in.
As I think back to my childhood (particularly during the summer break), most days my parents had no idea where we were at. I grew up in a small town in northern Arizona that was surrounded by the largest Ponderosa Pine forest in the world. There were vast expanses of wilderness directly behind my house. On summer days, my friends and I would get on our dirt bikes and follow miles of game trails all through the forest and up to the base of the volcanic boulder mountain where we would drop our bikes and climb massive rocks and cliffs until sunset. It was glorious!
Were my parents negligent to allow us such freedom? Personally, I don’t think so, based on the fact that most of my friends had parents with similar parenting styles. Many of these adults had been raised with the same type of autonomy when they were kids. They were just patterning their own parent’s parenting styles.
Give Kids Some Room to Make Mistakes
Today, however, if I were to learn that my young kids had left the house in the early morning by themselves to rock climb, explore the forest and encounter heaven-knows-what out in the woods, I’d probably start hyperventilating. I mean, they could get hurt! Some predator could be out in the woods and could haul them away. A wild animal could attack them and drag them off. They could fall down a cliff, never to be seen again. There are so many things that could go wrong!
So what’s my knee-jerk solution as a parent? Sadly, it’s to keep them at home. When they complain that they’re bored? Tell them to read a book or play a board game. When those get old? Turn on Netflix, Hulu or Amazon Prime. And since Netflix has a “kids area” where we can allow them to watch shows more tailored for kids, we feel safe allowing them some freedom to choose what they want to watch. In the meantime, comfortable that our kids are safe at home, we disappear into our home offices and five hours pass before we realize that the kids haven’t moved off of the couch that whole time. Thus, the results of the Nature Valley video above.
So yeah, I get it. It’s very tempting to protect our kids from every conceivable risk out there. But everyone, kids included, need some room to make mistakes and occasionally even get hurt. Immersing them in a virtual world where no physical harm can ever occur sounds good at first. But the danger of them becoming so inexperienced and unprepared for the real world may be an even greater danger than we’ve ever imagined.
Technology of Today
Another huge contributor to this problem of our children becoming chained to electronic devices is the technology itself. There is mounting evidence and research that indicates that our kids are in the crosshairs of not-exactly-benign corporations who see them as huge profit centers.
Of course, even in the 80’s we had video games (Atari, Nintendo, Sega, etc.). Those games were fun of course. But they were nothing like the games today which are designed by multi-million dollar companies who hire PhD level psychologists to help create games that are wildly popular and addicting. These games can be so immersive, psychologically stimulating and satisfying, that when compared to real life, it’s no wonder our kids never make it into the outdoors. I’ve been sucked in myself. There was a time when I allowed myself to be sucked into video gaming that led me into 3 a.m. video game session when I knew I had to be to work the next day by 8 a.m. It was crazy that the games were so appealing to me that I was willing to slog through a full day of work on less than 5 hours of sleep. And this was when I was a much younger twenty-something who most likely had developed a much better sense of responsibility and understanding of consequences than the typical teenager.
Social Media and Smart Devices
Of course, it’s not just video games that suck youth and adults in. Social media, YouTube, streaming video services like NetFlix, Hulu, and Amazon Prime. Even cable news and sports networks feed us a constant steady diet of highly entertaining, and yes, addicting content. How many of us have binged watched until the wee hours of the morning a show on NetFlix? I remember the first time I binge-watched a series and how amazed I was at my lack of self-control to just turn the TV off! It was the WB series exploring the early days of Superman “Smallville.” It was a fun, but ultimately worthless entertainment experience. I remember thinking to myself, “I can never get those hours of my life back. Was that really worth it in the end?”
Add to that the fact that children are receiving (at increasingly earlier ages) powerful computers that fit into the palms of their hands that allow 24/7 access to this type of entertainment and social engagement, and you’ve got what we’re seeing today. Something akin to the oft-cited zombie apocalypse!
Making it Real
So, yes. I think our children are up against a massive hurdle with regard to technology. The entertainment is better and more entertaining. And the availability of it is beyond anything we’ve ever experienced. When I grew up, I watched cartoons on Saturday morning. By 10 a.m., the stations had switched their programming to soap operas (gag!), daytime game shows, or Judge Judy type content. There was nothing to be entertained by in the house anymore. So we went outside whether it was cold or hot! Anything to address the oppressive boredom.
And guess what? We had fun most of the time. We got hurt, skinned knees, cuts from climbing trees, and even an occasional fist fight between friends when a pick-up basketball game got a little out of hand. But we learned about human interactions in those experiences too. Overall, we experienced the world as it existed. Not as some programmer out in Silicon Valley designed it.
Despite these challenges, this rising generation is not lost. As parents, we still have a great deal of potential influence over our children. It isn’t easy, but there are still many things we can do to ensure that our kids have good, quality playtime. Playtime grounded in reality – not virtual reality.
In case you haven’t guessed it yet, the aged 1980’s photo at the top of this page is of my best friend growing up, Jim Dillon, and me probably sometime after Christmas checking out each other’s Christmas presents. He was the one that I had so many of my childhood adventures with. I still sometimes can’t resist the temptation to slap on a photo-ruining cheesy smile. But man, I’m digging those sweatsuits!
How to Actually Improve Playtime
Perhaps this sounds too simple. But I’m telling you, it works. Yes, there may be anger, tears, begging, and even lots of flailing of limbs. In fact, does this video feel at all familiar to any parents out there? My whole family got a huge kick out of this because we saw so many reflections of ourselves in it:
We’ve all seen it. But come on. As a parent, we know that we have to do hard things. And taking away phones, unplugging video came consoles, setting parental restrictions on streaming devices and smartphones is just part of parenting today. If you’re not doing it, then you are simply conceding your parenting obligations to a stranger who you’ve never met who has no concern for your child beyond what revenue that child can generate for them. Take control and reduce the amount of time your kids are immersed in technology. It’s really that simple.
Create Meaningful Technology Replacements
So now that you’ve helped your kids unplug, what should they do? Here are a few ideas:
\* Get them a bike, skateboard, or roller blades and introduce them to a new skill. \* Enroll them (and maybe a friend or two if you can convince them) in a local Girl Scouting or Boy Scouting organization. \* Sign them up for art classes \* Have them join a community choir \* Enroll them in youth sports leagues \* Martial Arts (Karate Kid, anyone?) \* Help them start a snow-shoveling business or lawn mowing business \* Plant a garden or build grow-boxes to teach them the miracle of small-scale real food production \* Talk to some like-minded friends and brainstorm some play-dates for your kids at a local park or swimming pool. \* Teach your kids how to responsibly spend money so they feel empowered to walk down to the corner store with friends and buy a Slurpee when they feel like it. \* Buy a rocket launching set or kites and help them get started in a hobby that they’ve never considered. \* Introduce them to stamp or coin collecting. \* Call up some family cousins and schedule some time for them to come over and have a Nerf dart-gun war. \* Teach them how to cook or prepare their favorite treat or dessert.
Of course, that’s just scratching the surface. Sit down with your spouse or your family and brainstorm for a while. Pick up a calendar, and start penciling some of your ideas into the calendar. That way, the next time your kids say “We’re bored!” you can immediately pick up your list or your calendar and say “Great. I’ve got a plan.” For more ideas, check out an earlier article I wrote about how our family does this.
There will be resistance, I can assure you. But I can also assure you that your kids will look back on their childhoods with much more fondness than if you just leave them to their electronics. Spend time together. Spend time away from home. Get them out of the house and let them explore the real world. Your kids will have plenty of time in their adult lives to be lost in the virtual world.
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