Items tagged with: Auto
NASA says: „Despite criticism and early technical failures, the taming of liquid hydrogen proved to be one of NASA’s most significant technical accomplishments. . . . Hydrogen — a light and extremely powerful rocket propellant — has the lowest molecular weight of any known substance and burns with extreme intensity (5,500°F). In combination with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen yields the highest specific impulse, or efficiency in relation to the amount of propellant consumed, of any known rocket propellant. “
wir schreiben das Jahr 2011, Mercedes demonstriert mit einer World Tour, einer Weltumrundung, die Alltagstauglichkeit von Wasserstoff-Autos und Infrastruktur.
Linde is exclusive partner for Mercedes-Benz hydrogen world tour!
… es ist wirklich UNGLAUBLICH, die Stromkabel-Betreiber, TENNET, EnBW und Co. haben erst 2014 damit angefangen die Nord-Süd-Stromverbindung auszubauen.
Ihre Leitungen von Norden (viel Wind) nach Süden (wenig Wind, mehr Sonne) können die anfallende Menge an Strom NICHT transportieren, trotzdem wird der Ökostrom vergütet, eine Absurde Situation.
Ein Skandal in einem „modernen“ Land, dass die Infrastruktur zerfällt, egal ob Stromnetz, Schiene oder Autobahn.
Projekt „SüdLink“ dauert noch mindestens 15 Jahre d.h. mindestens bis 2030. (Quelle: Sonnen GmbH Schröder Vortrag: https://youtu.be/a5DESldsCcI?t=687)
u.a. auch deswegen:
… was ja auch verständlich ist, für jedes Kabel, jede neue Schiene, jede neue Autobahn ist ein Eingriff in die Natur / muss Wald abgeholzt werden, Anwohner haben Angst vor Elektromagnetischer Strahlung, das kann keiner wollen.
also ist doch die EINZIGE LOGISCHE LÖSUNG: WASSERSTOFF!
Erdölverbrauch der Menschheit erstmals auf 100 Millionen Barrel – PRO TAG gestiegen!
…ein Barrel/Fass hält 159 Liter d.h. die Menschheit verheizt 15.900.000.000 ~ 16 Milliarden Liter Erdöl PRO TAG! (Quelle: geographical.co.uk)
NASA says about hydrogen: „Liquid Hydrogen–the Fuel of Choice for Space Exploration PLUS:
The Centaur is a family of rocket stages. They are designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world’s first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Centaur has enabled the launch of some of NASA’s most important scientific missions during its 50-year history. Centaur was the brainchild of Convair employees Karel Bossart (the man behind the SM-65 Atlas, an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)), and Krafft Arnold Ehricke. Their design was essentially a smaller version of the Atlas, adopting its use of lightweight „stainless steel balloon“ tanks whose structural rigidity was provided solely by the pressure of the propellants within. To keep the tanks from collapsing before the propellant was loaded, they were either kept in „stretch“ or pressurized with nitrogen gas. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaur_(rocket_stage)yes it is explosive! but it is non-toxic explosions 🙂
Despite criticism and early technical failures, the taming of liquid hydrogen proved to be one of NASA’s most significant technical accomplishments. . .
Hydrogen — a light and extremely powerful rocket propellant — has the lowest molecular weight of any known substance and burns with extreme intensity (5,500°F). In combination with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen yields the highest specific impulse, or efficiency in relation to the amount of propellant consumed, of any known rocket propellant.
Because liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen are both cryogenic — gases that can be liquefied only at extremely low temperatures — they pose enormous technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen must be stored at minus 423°F and handled with extreme care. To keep it from evaporating or boiling off, rockets fuelled with liquid hydrogen must be carefully insulated from all sources of heat, such as rocket engine exhaust and air friction during flight through the atmosphere. Once the vehicle reaches space, it must be protected from the radiant heat of the Sun. When liquid hydrogen absorbs heat, it expands rapidly; thus, venting is necessary to prevent the tank from exploding. Metals exposed to the extreme cold of liquid hydrogen become brittle. Moreover, liquid hydrogen can leak through minute pores in welded seams. Solving all these problems required an enormous amount of technical expertise in rocket and aircraft fuels cultivated over a decade by researchers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland.
Today, liquid hydrogen is the signature fuel of the American space program and is used by other countries in the business of launching satellites. In addition to the Atlas, Boeing’s Delta III and Delta IV now have liquid-oxygen/liquid-hydrogen upper stages. This propellant combination is also burned in the main engine of the Space Shuttle. One of the significant challenges for the European Space Agency was to develop a liquid-hydrogen stage for the Ariane rocket in the 1970s. The Soviet Union did not even test a liquid-hydrogen upper stage until the mid-1980s. The Russians are now designing their Angara launch vehicle family with liquid-hydrogen upper stages. Lack of Soviet liquid-hydrogen technology proved a serious handicap in the race of the two superpowers to the Moon.4 Taming liquid hydrogen is one of the significant technical achievements of twentieth century American rocketry.
The above excerpt is from the Introduction to Taming Liquid Hydrogen: the Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002 →. This report details why the Centaur was so important in NASA history as an upper stage rocket — the critical link between its booster stage (Atlas or Titan) and the mission’s payload (satellite or spacecraft).
See also Liquid Hydrogen as a Propulsion Fuel, 1945-1959, the NASA History Office’s detailed account of liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel in the early days of space flight.“ (src: nasa.gov)
PDF: Taming Liquid Hydrogen: Taming Liquid Hydrogen – The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket 1958 SP-4230.pdf
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